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Final for VT2000

Emergency Care

QuestionAnswer
What are the 4 basic supplies needed in a crash cart Venous access, airway access, emergency drugs, dosage chart
What are additional items that can be in a crash cart? laryngeoscope, gauze, IV tubing, bone marrow caths, bandaging supplies, tape, clippers, sx scrub
What are common drugs used in emergency care? Atropine, Lidocaine, Epinephrine, Dopamine, Dobutamine, MgCl, Naloxone
What is a venous cutdown? Cutting down thru the skin until the vein is seen
What are common reasons to start fluid therapy on a pt? maintaining hydration, replacing fluid losses, maintaining IV access and delivering other meds, tx of shock or hypoproteinemia, increased urine output, correcting acid-base or electrolyte disturbances, providing nutritional support
Secondary complications of trauma DIC, Sepsis, Multiorgan failure, and distress caused by pain
What is triage? Determining what is the most important pt to treat and what is their most important illness/trauma to tx first
What are the ABCs of tx shock/trauma? A=airway, B=breathing, C=cardiovascular
What does A CRASH PLAN stand for? A=airway, C=cardiovascular, R=respiratory, A=abdomen, S=spine, H=head, P=pelvis, L=limbs, A=arteries/veins, N=nerves
What should you do with an arterial bleed? Immediately cover and apply pressure
What signs are associated with upper airway trauma? bloody respiratory discharge, increased respiratory effort, SQ emphysema, increased upper airway noise
What is the difference between a pneumothorax and a hemothorax? Pneumothroax=air in chest Hemothorax=blood in chest
What is flail chest? When 2 or more ribs are broken in 2 or more places
What are signs of intracranial pressure? Signs: changes in mentation and level of consciousness along with changes in PLR and pupillary size
Why are the techs the most important part of critical care? Bc we spend the most time with the patient monitoring them
What are signs of pain? Vocalizing, splinting, praying position, play bowing position, depression, anorexia, tachypnea, tachycardia, hypertension, pale mm, aggression, excessive salivation, dilated pupils
Why is it important to tx pain? Pain=slower recovery
What is DIC? Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation; clotting in the body on a widespread scale which in turn causes distruction of RBCs and bleeding, viscious cycle, eventually causing death
What is petechiae? Breaking of blood vessels in SQ tissue
What is eccymosis? Large areas of blood vessels breaking in SQ tissue, resembles a bruise
What are signs of the compensatory phase of shock? Signs: increased HR and RR, rapid CRT, injected mm (brick red), increased pulse pressure
What are the signs of the uncompensated phase of shock? Uncompensated shock signs: hypotension, rapid HR, weak pulses, prolonged CRT, pale mm, hypothermia, overt weakness, depression, loss of consciousness
What are the 4 types of shock? Hypovolemic, septic, cardiogenic, distributive
What is hypovolemic shock? The most common form, due to low perfusion of blood circulating either from profuse bleeding, dehydration, or effusive fluid loss
What is cardiogenic shock? Heartfailure from primary heart dz, cardiomyopathy, valvular dz, and arrythmias
What is distributive shock? Associated with maldistribution of blood flow associated with pathologic vasodilation Pooling of blood in capillaries and veins results in a decrease in effective blood volume
What is septic shock? Caused by infection
What is cardiopulmonary arrest? Cessation of breathing and effective blood circulation
What does CPCR stand for? Cardiopulmonary cerebrovascular resuscitation
How is CPR different from CPCR? CPCR brings then back to functioning
What pts are more at risk for cardiopulmonary arrest? Ones with heart dz, respiratory dz, hypothermia, multiorgan failure, trauma, and shock
What is the most common vagus mediated arrest from? Vomiting
When a pt comes in that is not breathing, what should you do first? Check the airway
Once you check the airway, and the pt is still not breathing, then what do you do? Establish an airway and breath for the pt
Once you start breathing for the t, what is the 3rd step? Check circulation, start compressions
Pts under 15lbs, when doing chest comppresions, what kind of pump is it? Cardiac
When doing chest compressions on a pt 15lbs and under, where should your hands be? Over the heart
Pts over 15 lbs, when doing chest compressions, what kind of pump is it? Thoracic
When doing chest compressions on a pt 15lbs or over, where should you hands be? Over the thickest part of the chest
In a large dog, what can someone else be doing while you are doing chest compressions to increase the blood flow in the pt? Compressions on the abdomen
What are 3 arrythmias seen during cardiac arrest? Asystole, nonperfusion, V-fib
What does LEAN stand for? Lidocaine, Epinephrine, Atropine, Naloxone--all drugs that can go down an Etube
What type of drugs are Mannitol and Furosemide? Diuretics
How big should donor cats be? 10lbs
How big should donor dogs be? 60lbs
What should cats test negative for? Hemofelis mycoplasma, cat scratch fever, Felv, FIV
What should dogs test negative for? Heartworm dz, brucellosis, tick borne dz, Babesia, Leishmania
How many blood types do dogs have? 8
How many blood types do cats have? 3
What is the blood type that is most senstive to other types in cats? B
Abdominal breathing is __________________ always abnormal
If the heart of lung is muffled, that is an indicator of? Fluid in the chest
If you hear crackles in the lungs, what is this an indicator of? Pneumonia or pulmonary edema
What is a normal pulse ox reading? Above 95%
What is a capnograph Measures breathing
What should you do first if you pulse ox detects a problem? check the pulse, mm, HR of a pt, do not adjust machine
What is a normal BP in animals? 100-150
If you get a reading of 175 what does this mean? Hypertension
What is a Doppler BP machine? Ultrasound crystal that is heard over a speaker system
What does CVP stand for? Central venous pressure
What is a normal CVP? 0-5
What does BMBT stand for? Buccal mucosal bleeding time
What are signs of CNS damage? pinpoint pupils, tachypnea, tachycardia, mental dullness
What can abdominal palpation detect? Fluid, organ enlargement, gas
What is a secondary problem to urinary obstruction? Kidney failure/damage
What are signs of a urinary obstruction? straining to urinate, not urinating, vocalizing, painful abdomen, large distended bladder
What blood values will elevate with a urinary obstruction? K, BUN, CREAT
What are the 5 things you should ask when an O calls about a possible toxicity ingestion? What did the animal ingest? When did the animal ingest it? Is the animal showing any clinical signs? Was the ingestion witnessed or suspected? Are there other animals or children who could also be exposed?
After how many hrs should you not induce vomiting? 4
What two ways can Apomorphine be given? Tablet in the eye and IV
What injectable is used to make cats vomit? Xylazine
What are 2 at home products used to makes pets vomit? Hydrogen peroxide and Ipecac syrup
What are labs results indicative of Ethylene glycol ingestion? Calcium oxylate monohydrate crystals in urine, elevated BUN and CREAT
What is tx for Ethylene glycol ingestion? Fomipazole and Everclear
What is tx for rat poison ingestion? Vitamin K
Created by: lsondermann