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GLPB Beef Glossary

The amount of reliability that can be placed on a trait that is being evaluated. It is expressed as a figure between 0.0 and 1.0. A figure close to 1.0 means a higher reliability. Accuracy
The yearling weight of an animal adjusted to 365 days and for the age of the dam. Adjusted 365-day yearling weight.
the weaning weight of a calf adjusted to 205 days of age and for the age of the dam. Adjusted 205-day weight.
The membrane in which the calf develops and through which it receives nourishment. After calving it is expelled by the cow. Afterbirth
The membrane in which the calf develops and through which it receives nourishment. After calving it is expelled by the cow. Placenta
Substances made from organisms that can kill bacteria. they are used to fight diseases caused by bacteria. Antibiotics
Placing the semen from a bull into a cow's reproductive tract using an artificial method. Artificial Insemination (AI)
What does the acronym AI stand for? Artificial Insemination
a practice of grazing cattle up to about 800 pounds before placing them on a high-concentrate finishing diet in a feedlot. During this phase, cattle are fed only to gain approximately 1 to 1.5 pounds a day. Backgrounding
Abnormal condition in ruminants due to accumulation of gasses; usually seen on the animal's upper left side. Bloat
the period of time when the females are bred by the herd bull or through an artificial method Breeding Season
The value of an animal as a parent, indicating the ability of bulls and cows to pass on desirable traits to their calves Breeding value
Groups of cattle with similar traits such as coat color, horns, or body and head shape that are passed from generation to generation (from parent to calves) Breeds
A breed of cattle which originated in the British Isles. British Breeds
Female kept to produce calves Brood cow
When the calve is "over at the knees", full extension of the knee cannot occur when observed from the side. This is usually seen in cattle that are also too straight in the shoulder. Buck Kneed
An intact, non-castrated male beef animal Bull
This is the opposite extreme of buck kneed where the calf stands "back at the knees" when viewed from the side. Calf Kneed
The percentage of calves produced in a heard in a year relative to the number of females that were bred at the beginning of the breeding year. Calf Crop
A young beef animal less than one year of age. CAlf
Refers to the lack of difficulty in giving birth. Opposite of dystocia, which describes calving difficulty Calving Ease
Nutrient group which includes starch, sugar, and cellulose Carbohydrates
Characteristics of cattle such as muscling and leanness, which can be estimated on live animals, but accurately measured only on beef carcasses. Carcass Traits
The muscle, bone, and fat associated with the slaughter of an animal; left after removing the head, hide and internal organs. Carcass
To remove the testes from a bull so that it cannot reproduce Castrate
The neck of the uterus. It serves as a passageway for the sperm at breeding time and for the calf as it is being born. Cervix
Molecules where genes are located. Cattle have 30 pairs of these. Chromosomes
A special type of feeder calve which is though to have excellent potential. Club Calf
The first milk produced by the dam after she calves. It is high in antibodies that give the calf protection against diseases. It is also higher in protein and vitamins than regular milk from the dam. Colostrum Milk
an unregistered beef animal that has parents from at least two different breeds. Commercial Crossbred Cattle
The time when the male sperm fertilize the female egg. Conception
The general shape of structure of a beef animal's build. Conformation
A group of cattle of the same breed and sex that have been raised in the same management group (same location on the same feed and pasture) Contemporary Group
When viewing the rear legs from the rear, the hocks are turned in or placed too close together Cow Hocked
Supplementing calves with feed while they are still nursing their dams Creep Feeding
The mating of animals of different breeds. The takes advantage of heterosis. Crossbreeding
The bolus (ball) of feed that cattle regurgitate from the rumen and chew. this process helps to digest the feed. Cud
Cattle producers that maintain ownership of their feeder cattle but place them on feed at another operator's feedlot until they are ready for slaughter. Custom Feeding
The percentage of boneless, closely trimmed, retail cuts from the round, loin, rib, and chuck of the carcass. Cutability
The mother of the calf Dam
Condition in which the lean meat of a beef carcass has a darker than normal color. This condition results from cattle being subjected to stressed conditions just prior to processing. Dark Cutter
These carcasses ten to have a higher pH which can lead to a metallic (less desirable) flavor and a shorter shelf life (because the increased pH allows for more bacterial growth Dark Cutter
To remove the horns Dehorn
Nutritionally balanced mixture of feed ingredients Diet
A gene(s) that determines the way an animals looks (the characteristics of an animal). They are present in a homozygous or heterozygous form. Dominant Gene
The proportion of carcass weight relative to live weight of an animal; carcass weight divided by live weight. Cattle average 62%. Dressing Percentage
A breed which can be raised for beef as well as milk production Dual-Purpose Breed
A term for the fertilized egg during the early part of the pregnancy. This term is used until the development of body parts. Embryo
Surgically removing fertilized eggs from a donor cow and placing them in a recipient cow. Embryo transfer
a hormone that brings a female into heat and prepares her for breeding Estrogen
The reproductive cycle of the female that prepares an egg for fertilization. In cows, the average length is 21 days. Estrous cycle
The part of the estrous cycle when a female may be successfully bred. It occurs just before the ripened egg is released from the ovary, and is ready to be fertilized by the sperm Estrus (heat)
A technique using hormones to bring a group of females in heat at the same time, to breed all of them within a short period of time. Estrus synchronization
A breed of cattle which originated on the continent of Europe Exotic Breed
The estimate of how future offspring of a sire are expected to perform in various traits. They are expressed in pounds and they are not comparable between different traits. Expected Progeny Difference (EPD)
Parasites that live on the outside of beef cattle. External parasites
Offspring that results from mating a purebred bull to a purebred female of another breed. F1
The typical linear measurement of fat taken over the rib eye between the 12th and 13th rib. Fat Thickness
Grain mixtures such as corn, oats, and soybean meal fed in a ration. Feed concentrate
A young calf, 5 to 9 months of age, that is weaned and started on a feeding program. Feeder Calf
A cattle facility which feeds immature beef cattle to the point of harvest (processing/slaughter) Feedlot
The description of how productive a breeding animal will be in terms of reproductive abilities. Fertility
When the egg from the female and the sperm from the bull join and begin to form a calf embryo. Fertilization
Amount of fat cover on an animal Finish
Plants used as feed for livestock Forages
A way of estimated what weight cattle will be when they have reached slaughter condition. It is based on the hip height of the animal at different ages. Frame Score
Allowing cattle to have access to a feed at all times. Free Choice
The female calf born as a twin to a bull calf. Freemartin
What percent of all freemarins are infertile and will not be able to conceive. 90%
This is the animals safety zone. The size varies depending upon the animals degree of wildness or tameness Flight Zone
The basic unit of heredity found in pairs on chromosomes. They are transmitted singly from each parent to their offspring Gene
The passing on of genetic or physical traits of parents to offspring Genetics (Heredity)
The period of time from when the cow is bred (conceives) until she calves. Gestation
The gestation period of a cow is how long? 283 days
a young, female beef animal that has not calved Heifer
The passing on of genetic or physical traits of parents to offspring Heredity
The amount of differences among cattle, measures or observed, that is transmitted to the offspring. Heritability
The higher this is, the more accurately does individual performance predict breeding value and the more rapid should be the responses due to selection for that trait. Heritability
Carrying unlike genes fro the same trait Heterozygous
Loin, Rib High Priced Cuts
Carrying identical genes for the same trait Homozygous
A body-regulating chemical secreted by a gland into the blood stream Hormone
The amount by which crossbred animals exceed the average of the two purebreds that are crossed to produce the crossbreds Hybrid vigor
When the body builds up a resistance (protection) from a disease organism Immunity
Production of offspring from parents more closely related than the average of a population. Inbreeding
This breeding practice increases the proportion of homozygous genes in offspring. It also increases the ability of a parent to pass on its characteristics so offspring resemble the parents more than usual and uncovers recessive genes (good and bad) Inbreeding
Parasites that live inside the body of beef cattle. Internal Parasite
The amount of fat contained in the regions of the kidney, pelvis, and heart relative to the carcass weight. KPH Fat Percentage
A non-grass plant that produces nitrogen in its roots. Because of this nitrogen production, it is higher in protein and minerals than other plants Legume
A form of inbreeding in which an attempt is made to concentrate the inheritance of an outstanding ancestor in a herd. Line Breeding
Brisket, Flank, Plate, Shanke Low Priced Cuts
finished cattle that are ready for market Market Steer
Breed or breeds primarily used for brood cows in a cow/calf herd Maternal Breed
Chuck, Round Medium Priced Cuts
Elements required by cattle to build bones and teeth and to support other life processes Minerals
an estimate of a cow's future productivity for a trait, such as her future calves' weaning weight, based on her past productivity Most Probable Producing Ability (MPPA)
Ingredients that make up a ration Nutrients
The five groups of these are energy, potein, minerals, vitamins, and water Nutrients
A cow or heifer that is not pregnant Open cow or heifer
The mating of individuals that are less closely related than the average of the breed. It is used primarily by purebred breeders to introduce new, unrelated sires to the herd. Out Crossing
The female organ that produces eggs. The female reproductive tract has two of these. Ovary
The time when the egg is released from the ovary. In cattle it occurs 10-16 hours after the end of standing heat. ovulation
Organisms that live off another organism Parasites
A summary of ancestral names of three to five generations Pedigree
A pedigree that includes performance records in addition to usual pedigree information. Performance pedigree
When viewed from the front or rear, the toes turn in toward each other. Pigeon Toed
Do more cattle become unsound because of pigeon toed or splay footed? Pigeon Toed
Cattle that do not grow horns Polled Breed
The hock has too little angle or set. The calf is too straight through the joint, resulting in a very stiff, constricted movement because of the lack of flexibility. Postlegged.
Do more cattle become unsound because of being postlegged or sickle hocked? Postlegged
A systematic method of reducing stress that includes vaccinating for the major infectious agents, treating for internal and external parasites, weanin, castrating and dehorning the animals well in advance of sale and movement to the feedlot Preconditioning
The offspring of animals Progeny
A female hormone that maintains pregnancy in the female Progesterone
A compound that is naturally produced in the reproductive system of the cow. It is also commercially produced and used to synchronize estrus. Prostaglandin
A dietary nutrient that supplies amino acids to the calf Protein
An animal whose parents are from the same breed Purebred
The factors associated with palatability characteristics of the edible portion of meat; including color, texture, firmness, marbling, and age Quality Grade
An indication of how well or how poorly cattle compare in a certain trait to others in the group Ratio
A daily mixture of feed ingredients given to cattle. Ration
This provides all the proper nutrients in the proper amount Balanced Ration
A gene(s) that affect the way an animal looks (phenotype) when present as a homozygous pair. The genes must be passed on from both parents before it can be expressed in the offspring. Recessive gene
Cattle of a certain breed that are recorded by a breed association with the animal's name and the name and number of both parents. Registered Cattle
A female that is being kept for us in the breeding herd Replacement heifer
This is the amount of a substance that remains in an animal's body tissue after exposure to a substance. The substance can enter the animal's body when it is used as a feed or water additive, as an injectable or external treatment, or by accident. Residue
Protection from a disease organism Resistance
The cuts of meat that the consumer buys at the meat counter. Retail cuts
The practice of a feeder cattle producer that keeps or retains his cattle until they are ready for slaughter Retained ownership
The surface area of the longissimus dorsi muscle between the 12th and 13th rib of a beef carcass Rib Eye Area
Coarse or bulky feeds that are high in fiber. Examples are corn silage, pasture, and hay. It is needed in the diet of beef animals to keep the rumen working properly. Roughage
An animal that has four stomach compartments Ruminant
Sperm mixed with the fluids from the accessory glands of the male. Semen
A brother or sister of an individual Sibling
When viewing the rear legs from the side, the hock has too much angle or set. This causes the animal to stand too far underneath itself. Often these calves will also droop excessively from hooks to pins. Sickle Hocked
The published results of national sire evaluation programs that compare sires on different economically important traits Sire Summary
The father of a calf Sire
The male sex cells produced in the testicles Sperm
When viewed from the front or rear the feet toe out away from each other Splayfooted
The window of time during estrus when a female is receptive to mating Standing Heat
A castrated male calf Steer
The condition of the skeleton, especially the feet and legs, of cattle. Structural Soundness
A process of treating a cow with hormones to cause her to release several eggs from an ovary at one time. The eggs are then fertilized and later removed and placed into recipient cows. Super Ovulation
A feed ingredient added to the ration or provided to the cattle free choice. Supplement
A bull used in a commercial beef herd where all calves are sold Terminal sire
An estimate of the energy requirments of beef cattle. It is used to formulate rations and to show the feed values of different types of feed. Total Digestible Nutriends (TDN)
The female reproductive organ where the embryo develops during pregnancy. During calving it contracts to force the calf out of the birth canal. Uterus
Dietary nutrients needed in very small amounts for the health of eyes, nasal passages and lung; for strong bones; for blood clotting; and for other body functions. Vitamins
The external opening to the female's reproductive system Vulva
To take the calf from its mother, typically between 6-8 months of age. Wean
Chuck, rib, loin, round, shank, brisket, plate, and flank Wholesale cuts
In the case of meat animals, this is the period of time that must elapse between the last treatment and the harvest (slaughter) of the animal. This time period allows the medication to be eliminated from the animals body and prevents unsafe residues. Withdrawal
Refers to the percentage of a carcass which can be sold as boneless meat. Yield Grade
Diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans Zoonotic
Created by: jkoubsky



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