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Clin Path

The lymphocyte is predominant in what 3 animals? Cattle, Sheep, and Goat
What is the range of lymphocytes found in the feline? 1,500-7,000
What is the range of lymphocytes found in the canine? 1,000-4,800
What percentage of lymphocytes are in circulation? 2%
How long do lymphocytes survive? Varies- Can live the lifespan of the animal
What are the clinical signs of Lymphocytosis? None
What percentage of lymphocytes are stored in the spleen? 13%
What are the 5 causes of lymphocytosis? Physiologic/Epinephrine release, Antigenic Stimulation, Youth, Chronic inflammation and Later stages of resolving infections
What is a foreign protein capable of causing a specific immune response? Antigen
What is the MOST common CBC abnormality seen in clinics? Lympphopenia
What are the 4 causes of lymphopenia? Steroids, Chronic inflammation, Decreased production, immunosuppressive drugs/syndromes.
What happens to the total WBC count in cattle as its lymphocytes increase? Increases
Describe the cytoplasm of a lymphocyte. Not always seen, sky blue in color.
Desribe the nucleus of a lymphocyte. Round/Oval and dark purple.
How large are small lymphoctes? 7-9 microns
How large are large lymphocytes? 9-11 microns
What type of lymphocytes are generally large, not always round, and has a clefted nucleus? Atypical lymphocyte
What type of lymphocytes are seen with infection as well as neoplasia and has dark blue unevenly distributed granules? Atypical lymphocyte
What kind of lymphocyte is seen during antigenic stimulation and is also called an immunocyte? Reactive Lymphocyte
What kind of lymphocytes have a large nucleus with dense chromatin as well as cytoplasm the has a pale perinuclear zone? Reactive Lymphocyte
How large are reactive lymphocytes? 15-20 microns
What cell is also called an immunocyte or activated lymphocyte? Reactive Lymphocyte
How many lymphocyte types are possible? 250+
What is the maturation of a B-lymphocyte? PPSC-> Lymphoid Stem Cell-> Pre B-Lymphocyte-> B-Lymphoblast-> B-Prolymphocyte-> B-Lymphocyte
What percentage of lymphocytes are T-Cells? ~70%
What percentage of lymphocytes are B-Cells? ~30%
What is the maturation of a T-Lymphocyte? PPSC-> Lymphoid Stem Cell-> Pre T-Lymphocyte-> T-Lymphoblast-> T-Prolymphocyte-> T-Lymphocyte
In order to graduate from Thymus University what must a T-Cell know? Self Vs. Notself
What is the percentage of T-Cells that actually make it into circulation? 1-5%
Where do T-Cells mature? Thymus
Where are T-Cells stored? White pulp of the spleen or the lymph nodes.
What type of immunity are T-Cells associated with? Cell mediated Immunity, And 3rd line of specific immunity.
What is the nickname for T-Cells? Troups
What activates T-Cells? Tissue macrophages
What cell is also referred to the bursa equivalent (Bursa of Fabricisu)? B-Cells
Where is the bursa located on the bird? Near the cloaca.
What is GALT? Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue
Where do B-cells mature? Bone marrow or GALT
Where are B-Cells stored? Lymph nodes, Spleen, Tonsils or any other lymphoid tissue.
What type of immunity are B-Cells associated with? Humoral Immunity and 3rd line (Specific immunity)
What are the 2 nicknames for B-Cells? Boxseaters or Boss Cells
What is the range of NK cells found in the cat or dog? Rare
Where do NK cells mature? Bone marrow
Where are NK cells stored? Lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils or any other lymphoid tissues.
What type of immunity are NK cells associated with? 2nd line of defense, non specific immunity
What is the nickname for the NK cell? Dog
True or false. NK cells do not require stimulation. true
What cell kills anything that isnt self as well as cells infected with a virus or cancer? NK Cells
What type of cells can produce memory cells? T and B Cells
What type of cells are clones of the original lymphocyte and do not participate in the initial response? Memory Cells
What are the 3 compartments of the lymphoid tissue? Bone marrow, Central Lymphoid organs, and Peripheral lymphoid tissue
What are the 3 locations considered to be part of the central lymphoid organ compartment? GALT, Thymus and Bone Marrow
What are the 5 locations considered to be part of the peripheral lymphoid organ compartment? Bone marrow, Tonsils, GALT, Lymph nodes and Spleen.
What is the primary difference between Lymph and Plasma? Lymph has: MORE nutrients/Electrolytes/Sugars/Water and LESS large proteins.
What are the 3 primary plasma proteins? Fibrinogen, Albumin, and Globulins
What fluid is considered to be digestive lymph that contains chylomicrons? Chyle
What are chylomicrons? Microscopic fat particles
What are the 4 functions of the lymphatic system? Removal of excess tissue fluid, Waste material transport, Lymph filtration, and Protein transport.
What are the results of excess tissue fluid is not removed? Edema
What pseudogland is swollen when macrophages are active and can be the spot where cancer spreads? Lymph nodes
What organ is located on the left side of the abdomen and has white pulp as well as white pulp? Spleen
Where in the spleen are RBCs and platelets stored? Sinuses
The spleen is a very muscular organ except in what type of animal? Ruminants
What organ has both hematologic and lymphatic properties/functions? Spleen
What organ is not essential to life and is responsible for removal of foreign material by its macrophages? Spleen
What are the 2 most common reasons for a splenectomy? Trauma (Ruptures) and Splenic tumors
What gland is also referred to as "Sweet bread" and is located in the mediastinum? Thymus
What gland is responsible for kickstarting immunity? Thymus
What tissue is similar to lymph nodes but have no capsule? Tonsils
Where are tonsils found in general (not location)? Found close to mucosal surfaces and at the beginning of lymph drainage
What are the 5 locations of tonsils within the body? Pharyngeal, Laryngeal, Intestinal, Prepuce, and Vaginal
How much of the intestinal lining does GALT make up? 25%
Where can you find GALT? Intestinal lining (Ileum)
What is the function of the immune system? To protect from anything that can cause disease or damage
What is the percentage of T-Cells that gets lysed in the thymus because they can not recognize self from not self? 90%
Define epitope. A uniquely shaped site on the surface on an antigen that is recognized by an antigen receptor.
What determines the shape of an epitope? Amino acid sequence
Define pathogenicity. Ability of an antigen to cause disease.
Define virulence. Refers to the degree of pathogenicity (or the extent of Dz) of an antigen. (Ex. Mild or severe)
What are the 5 things that make a good antigen? Size, Foreigness, Complexity and chemical stability, Dose, Host Status and route of administration.
What term refers to the proteins found in plasma that attach to undetectable/small antigens and present them to macrophages? Haptens
What type of immune system will those with severe allergies or an autoimmune disease have? Over-Reactive Immune System
What type of immune system will animals with immunodeficiencies have? Underreactive Immune system
What happens to the mast cells during an anaphylaxis reaction? Mast cells degranulate throughout the body.
What does the word "haptens" mean? To fasten
What are the 2 types of immunity? Specific and nonspecific
What type of immunity is also know as innate? Non-specific immunity
What type of immunity is rapid/instantaneous and very generalized? Nonspecific immunity
What kind of immunity contains the 1st and 2nd line of defense? Nonspecific
What are the 2 components of the 1st line of defense? Physical and chemical barriers
What are some examples of a physical barrier? Haircoat, Intact epithelium (keratin layer), mucus membranes, and cilia
What are some examples of a chemical barrier? Mucus, saliva, tears (lysozyme), normal flora, and hydrochloric acid in the stomach
What are the 5 components of the 2nd line of defense? Phagocytosis, Nk Cells, Interferons, Complement, and inflammatory response.
What are the 5 steps in the process of phagocytosis? Attraction, Attachment, Ingestion, Fusion, and Digestion
What type of cell must have direct contact to kill a cell and targets cancerous cells or any other cell that interfers? NK cell
How do NK cells lyse? With perforins
What is the antiviral protein produced by the cells infected with a virus? interferons
What protein is responsible for inhibiting viral replication? interferons
How soon do interferons respond? Within hours
What is the term that refers to a group of inactive enzymes in plasma? Complement
When are complements activated? When antigen/antibody complex is formed
When an antibody hooks up to its unique antigen what is it called? Antigen-Antibody Complex
What is the complement process? -Connects -Binding sites exposed -Binds to active sites -Complement fixation.
After all sites are full or activated the complement arranges in a donut shape on the antigen cell wall resulting in a hole in the cell wall. What is the called? Complement fixation
What is the body's normal response to an insult or injury? inflammatory response
What are the 3 purposes of the inflammatory response? 1:To limit spread of pathogens 2:To remove debris of damaged tissue 3:Initiate healing/tissue repair
What are some examples of causes of inflammation? Trauma, toxins, sun, insect bites/stings, and microorganisms.
True or false. Inflammation is abnormal. False.
What type of response is abnormal and caused by a proliferation os microorganisms? Infection
What are the 5 cardinal signs of inflammation? Redness, Heat, Pain, Edema, and decreased function
What are the 6 steps to the inflammatory process? 1-Vasoconstriction 2-Vasodilation 3-Fluid from plasma pours into tissue 4-Clot formation 5-Clean up 6-Return to normality
How long does vasoconstriction last for? 5-10 minutes
What happens after vasoconstriction during an inflammatory response? Mast cell degranulate after the 5-10 min.
Why do the vessels constrict during the inflammatory response? To prevent hemorrhage
What is released after vasodilation causing local hyperemia, redness, and heat? Histamine and heparin
What part of the inflammatory response will you see redness? Vasodilation
What part of the inflammatory response will you see heat? Vasodilation and clean up
What part of the inflammatory response will you see edema? Fluid from the plasma leaking to the tissue
What part of the inflammatory response will you see pain? Fluid from the plasma leaking in to the tissues
What part of the inflammatory response will you see decreased function? Fluid from the plasma leaking in to the tissues
What 3 things does vasodilation provide? RBCs (O2)---->Healing WBCs----->Defense PLTs----> Clot formation
What chemical is responsible for increasing capillary permeability? histamine
What causes pain during edema? fluid impinges on the nerve ending in the tissue
What does the fluid from plasma provide to the surrounding tissue? Antibodies, nutrients, complements, enzymes, and plasma proteins
Why is a clot formed during the inflammatory response? to wall off the area adjacent to injury to prevent spread of microbes
What cells are responsible for cleaning up tissue debris? Macrophages and neutrophils
What chemical is released during phagocytosis that causes fever? pyrogens
What are the 3 reasons a fever is beneficial? 1-Promotes interferon activity 2-Increases metabolic rate to initiate healing 3-Inhibits viral and bacterial reproduction
Define perforins. Chemicals secreted by NK cells that punch holes into the cell membrane of an infected cell to lyse it.
What are the 3 R's of specific immunity? Recognize, Respond, Remember
Where does cell mediated immunity take place? in the tissues
Cell mediated immunity is meant to deal with what type of pathogens? intracellular
What type of immunity do T-Cells have? Cell mediated immunity
What is required with cell mediated immunity? Tissue Macrophage
What are the 3 types of cells that T-Cells can develop into? Cytotoxic T-Cells, Helper T-Cell and Supressor T-Cell
What type of tcell is also known as a killer tcell? Cytotoxic tcell
What type of tcell is also known as a sensitized tcell? Cytotoxic tcell
How do cytotoxic tcells destroy an antigen? Perforins, Induce apoptosis, or Lymphotoxins
What type of tcell attaches to an antigen to destroy it and is not harmed in the process? Cytotoxic tcell
What type of lymphocytes remain in the tissue? Bcells
What type of cell is CD8? Cytotoxic tcell
What type of cell is CD4? Helper tcell
What type of cell is Ts? Suppressor tcell
What 2 types of cytokines are secreted into the tissue by helper tcells? interleukens and macrophage migration factor
What cytokine stimulates and increases activation of B-Cells and other T-Cells? Interleukens
What cytokine attracts, stimulates, and entraps macrophages? Macrophage Migration Factor
What type of tcells inhibit helper and killer tcells and stops bcells from becoming plasma cells? suppressor tcells
What type of tcells release cytokines that shut down immune response? suppressor tcells
Where does humoral immunity take place? In the plasma
What type of lymphocyte is involved with humoral immunity? B-Cell
What activates humoral immunity? Formation of an antigen-antibody complex
What process do clones undergo to become plasma cells? Blastic Transformation
How long does blastic transformation take? 3-6 days
Activated B-cell can become ___________________ or ___________________. Memory cells or plasma cells
What 3 things can happen when an antibody attaches to an antigen? Neutralization, Agglutination/Precipitation, and Complement activation
How is an antigen neutralized? An antibody is attached to all of the epitopes on the antigen
How many binding sites to antigens typically have? 4-10
What amino acid is essential to making IgA? Lysine
What are the 5 groups of immunoglobins? IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, IgD
What group of immunoglobins accounts for 75-80% of antibodies found in the plasma and have a slow production rate? IgG
What group of immunoglobins are found in fluids and secretions? IgA
What group of immunoglobins are seen during 2nd exposure and have a rapid production rate? IgM
What group of immunoglobins are associated with allergic response, mast cells and are known to attract eosinophils? IgE
Created by: fadedfaithless



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