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bio1100 x


the term for an observable trait of an organism phenotype
mendell postulated that individuals have genetic elements that exist in pairs, which determine a single phenotype. These pairs are two alleles of a gene on a homologous chromosome
mendel crossed true-breeding pea plants and found the dominant trait always appeared in the f1 generation, but it appeared in a___ ration of dominant recessive in the f2 generation 3:1
A and a are dominant and recessive alleles of the same gene; which genotype would result in an individual with the dominant phenotype aa only
the genotype Ff is an example of heterozygous genotype
dimpled cheeks are dominant to undimpled cheeks; if a 50% chance that a child will have dimpled cheeks the parental genotypes must be Dd and dd
in order to track the inheritance of two characters you would need to do a dihybrid cross
what is the basis of codominance each allele of a gene produces a protein that functions to create a trait
characters such as height, weight ,and skin color are controlled by manys genes acting together; these are examples of polygenic inheritance
the phenotype of an organism can be influenced by environment and genotype
what do hemophilla, duchenne muscular dystrophy, and red green color blindnesss have in common they are x linked
genes not found on the sex chromosome will be found on autosomes.
ex of an autosomal recessive disorder sickle cell anemia
a pedigree is a representation of a genetic family tree
if more than on sperm fertilizes an egg, what will result polyploidy
failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate in meiosis nondisjunction
down syndrome in humans is caused by three copies of chromosome 21
combination of chromosomes that would be found in a person afflicted with turner syndrome XO
cri du chat syndrome babies are mentally challenged due to a deletion in chromosome 5
primary purpose of light reactions of photosynthesis to release electrons needed to convert solar energy to chemical energy
can create their own sugars using photosynthesis plants
breaking bonds into starch to release glucose is considered exergonic
oxygen allows humans to produce ATP from food
NADH being converted into NAD+ is an example of oxidation
the diversity of chemical reations occuring in the cell depends on certain molecules present in the cells called enzymes
oxidative phosphorylation is carried out during aerobic respiration
the energy currency of cells ATP
the energy to add a phosphate group to ADP to form ATP comes from enzymes
the consequence of one base being changed in the base sequence of a DNA molecule a defective protein
this process contributes least to genetic diversity duplication of DNA
DNA> RNA> polypeptide(protein) transcription and translation
how many codons can act as termination codons three
which single attribute determines that a human fetus is male the presence of a Y chromosome
what does RNA polymerase enzyme complex do it unwinds the DNA brins complementary RNA nucleotides to DNA, and synthesizes RNA
what is the significance of multiple alleles they allow for a range of traits in a population
which segment of an mRNA transcipt is removed before it is translated introns
what is the relationship between DNA and chromatin chromatin is the combination of DNA packaged around proteins
can reveal the presence of cancerous genes a karyotype
a bacterium that is pathogenic is a disease causing organism
DNA, nucleotides, DNA polymerase, primers are needed to perform a PCR reaction
bacteria are the ____ living things known smallest
____ are used as a vector to transer genes between organisms plasmids
in what type of environment would you mostly likely find anerobes with out oxygen
embryonic stem cells are taken from eggs
they cut foreign DNA, for ex: the DNA of invading organisms function of restriction enzymes on bacteria
oxygen is reduced to water in the cells mitochondria
____ and ___ produce over half of the oxygen in the atmosphere microscopic algae and bacteria
the products of photosynthesis o2 and sugar
allows making many copies of DNA when the starting sample is small PCR
used to amplify small samples of DNA forensic DNA analysis
a protein coat around the genetic material of a virus capsid
a molecule that has lost electrons has been oxidized
a noncellular, replicating entity virus
can serve as coenzymes vitamins
many short, hair like extensions that beat to produce movement cilia
"dolly" or another reproductively cloned animal is a clone of an adult animal that contributed DNA to an enucleated egg
before proteins can be used for cellular respiration they must be broken down into amino acids
restriction enzymes are mainly derived from bacteria
glucose is oxidized and oxygen is reduced during cellular respiration
kary mullins was awarded the noble prize in chemistry for inventing the ploymerase chain reation
a bacterias ability to take up DNA from its surroundings bacterial transformation
scientists do not consider___ to be alive because they cannot metabolize outside a host cell viruses
it is possible for a ____ gene to work in any other organism human
the combination of a somatic cell with an enucleated egg cell somatic cell nuclear transfer
spherical bacteria spherocytes
circular bacteria cocci
rod shaped bacteria bacilli
the use of technology to control biological processes as a means of meeting societal needs biotechnology
before starch can be used for cellular respiration it must be broken down into glucose
malaria is caused by a virus
clones that already are produced by nature identical twins
an exact copy of a DNA, cell, or organism clone
the ring of bacteria that is not part of their chromosome plasmid
produces a vitamin A precursor that helps prevent blindness golden rice
"dolly" is a product of reproductive cloning
most enzymes are proteins
help enzymes to function coenzymes
break down proteins into amino acids chymotrypsin
absorbs light chlorophyll
gradual changing of live over time evolution
evolution is based on speculation
Darwin proposed his theory of evolution in 1859
has confirmed the immense age of the earth radiometric dating
around the globe____ from the same evolutionary periods are consistently found together fossils
the theory of evolution explains the common occurance of_______ ______ ______ in different organisms homologous physical structures
the _____ ____ of species on earth islands is explained by the theory of evolution geographic distribution
____ _____ have been carried out in the laboratory and in nature experimental demonstrations
evolution over a short period of time microevolution
evolution over a long period of time macroevolution
only one species; only one geographic; certain time/population keywords of microevolution
form of natural selection that can affect the frequency of alleles in a gene pool sexual selection
movement of genes from one population to another gene flow
the only agent of microevolution that consistenelty acts to adapt organisms to their environments natural selection
moves a given character in a population toward intermediate forms to preserve the status quo stabilizing selection
moves a given character toward one of its extreme forms directional selection
moves a given character toward two extreme forms disruptive selection
alteraion in an organisms DNA mutation
the movement of alleles from one population to another gene flow
chance alteration of gene frequencies in a population genetic drift
occurs when some members of a population mate more often than other members sexual selection
when individuals are more successful in surviving and reproducing natural selection
of other countries(geographic separation) allopatric
other than geographic separation sympatric
putting orgamisns into various categories, factors other than phylogeny, ought to be taken into account classical taxonomy
the only criterion for taxonomic placement is phylogeny cladistic
4.6 billion years old earths age
3.8 billion years ago origin of life
1.2 billion years ago all life was microscopic and unicellular
have worker molecules, information bearing molecules that are used for replication ribozymes
oldest organism on earth protista
fruit bearing gymnosperm
flower bearing angiosperm
first hominin was lucy
there are ___ hominin groups 6
all 6 hominin groups are extinct except homo sapiens
Created by: chop



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