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Estrous & Pregnancy

Define Estrous Cycle Time from beginning of one heat period to beginning of next.
Puberty time? 6-24 mnths; Avg.: 9-10 mnths.
What are the 2 phases of Estrous Cycle? Follicular & Luteal Phase
What makes up the Follicular Phase? Proestrus and Estrus
What makes up the Luteal Phase? Diestrus and Anestrus
What is Proestrus & how long does it last? When female is sexually attractive, but rejects male's advances 9-10 days
What is Estrus & how long does it last? Mating. 9-10 days.
What is Metestrus 2 phases in Diestrus when Corpus Luteum develops
What is Diestrus & how long does it last? Pregnancy is established. Copus Luteum of max size. Female's refusal to mate. 57-58 days.
What is Anestrus & how long does it last? Time when no reproductive event 2-5mnths
Physical signs of Proestrus? Serosanguinous vaginal discharge Vulvular swelling Vaginal edema
Internal signs of Proestrus? Lengthening & hyperemia of uterine horns Cervix enlargement Vaginal wall thickening
Hormonal signs of Proestrus? Increasing serum concentrations of estradiol (estrogen)
What is Estrogen responsible for? Physical signs of Proestrus
What produces Estrogen? Maturing follicles in ovary under influence of FSH
Cytologic signs of Proestrus? Vaginal Cytology: Parabasal & inmdt. cells predominate. WBC's & RBC's are present.
What kind of cells are most observed on vaginal smears? Erythrocytes
Physical signs of Estrus? Less turgid swollen vulva Vulvular discharge less bloody Female allows mating -"Standing" heat -"Flagging"
Hormonal signs of Estrus? Estrogen peaks which initiates surge of LH. -Results in ovulation -Stimulates cells left behind to multiply into corpus luteum Progesterone levels start to increase
What produces Progesterone & what does it do? Corpus luteum. Maintains pregnancy
Cytologic signs of Estrus? Vaginal Cytology: Superficial anuclear squamous cells predominate (aka cornified cells) RBC's present
Internal signs of Metestrus? Uterus lining is thick and "juicy". Loss of cornified epithelial lining.
Physical signs of Diestrus? None. Ceasing signs of Estrus
Hormonal signs of Diestrus? Progesterone levels keep increasing.
How do you tell if female is pregnant? There is rapid pre-partum drop in Progesterone (24 hours before parturition)
Cytologic signs of Diestrus? Vaginal Cytology: Decrease in number of superficial cells & reappearance of intmd. & parabasal & WBC's
True or False. In dogs/cats, unique in that corpora lutea appear to have preprogrammed lifespans. True
What is Pseudopregnancy? False pregnancy
What are signs of Pseudopregnancy? Prolonged Diestrus. Nesting Behavior Mammary Enlargement (C/S fade with time)
What happens in Anestrus? Progesterone reaches level below 3 nmol/L (needs to be high to maintain pregnancy)
Cytologic signs of Anestrus? Acellular. Cells present are parabasal & small intmdt. cells
What kind of cycle do Queens have? Seasonally Polyestrous
What controls the Queen's Estrous Cycle? Photoperiod & body weight (12-14hrs of light & 2.5kgs
If there is an absence of ovulation/pregnancy in Queen's Estrous cycle what happens? Estrous cycle reapeats every 10-14 days
Physical signs of Proestrus? Increased affection.
Hormonal signs of Proestrus? Increased Estrogen
Cytologic signs? Cornified Epithelial cells
How long is Proestrus in Queens? 1-2 Days
Physical signs of Proestrus? Copulation Extreme affection -Vocalization -Head rubbing -Lordosis -"Flagging"
Hormonal signs of Proestrus? Estrogen levels peak
Cytolgic signs of Proestrus? Maximum vaginal epithelium cornification
Duration of Estrus? 7-9 days
True or false. Cats are "induced ovulators. True.
What happens during Queen's mating? Vocalize. Tom bites female's neck. W/ erection, penis faces forward. Lasts 30sec-5min As male dismounts, female gives loud copulatory call & tom retreats.
How long may mating occur? 6-7 times until Queen declines. For 4 days.
How is pregnancy diagnosed? Palpation (days 21-30) 'walnuts' Ultrasound (18-20 days past LH peak) Radiography (day 45 past LH peak)
What days is an ultrasound done? 25, 49, & 55 days. (optimum 33-45) -200 bpm
What is Gestation? Period of pregnancy
How long is gestation in dogs/cats? Dogs: 59-68 Cats: 56-69
How many stages are their in labor? 3
What are the 3 stages of Labor? 1st: Uterine Contractions 2nd: Delivery of newborn 3rd: Delivery of placenta
Signs of impending parturition? Nesting behavior 12-24hrs before. Inappetance. Panting, shivering. Drop in rectal temp. (24-48hrs before parturition, caused by decrease in progesterone) <98
What is seen in Labor, Stage I? Uterine contractions Restlessness Panting Nesting Cervix dilates
What is seen in Labor, Stage II? Rectal temp rises to normal Passing of fetal fluids Uterine & abdominal contractions -3 to 6 hours, up to 24 -Fetus delivered w/in 4hrs -Female breaks amniotic membrane, lick neonate intensely & sever umbilical cord -20mins to 1hr p/puppy, no more t
What are the warning signs in Labor, Stage II? Greenish discharge but no pup w/in 2-4hrs. Fetal fluid passed more than 2-3hrs & nothing happened. Weak irregular straining more than 2-4hrs.
..Warning signs continued.. Strong regular straining more than 20-30 mins w/no pup born. More than 2-4hrs passed sice last pup born & more remain. Been in Stage II more than 12hrs.
what should you know about Stage III? Interval between birth (15-20mins) Parturition shouldn't last more than 24hrs
What is seen in Labor, Stage III? Pup-placenta intervals. Female eats placenta. Lochia: greenish postpartum discharge of fetal fluids & placenta -seen for 3wks)
What is dystocia? Difficult birth or inability to expel fetus thru birth canal w/out assistance
Causes of dystocia? Abnormal fetal position/size. Uterine inertia. Narrow birth canal.
Diagnosis of dystocia? Vaginal palpation. Radiography. Ultrasound.
Treatment of dystocia? Manual manipulation. Oxytocin injection (for uterine inertia) C-section
Appropriate maternal behavior? Allow nursing. Grooming. Retrieving. Protection.
Inappropriate maternal behavior? Attack, kill, cannibalize young. Overly protective, restless, aggressive.
What is Agalactia & what causes it? Lack of milk production. -Stress. -Malnutrition. -Premature parturition. -Infection
What is Galactostasis? Milk stasis. Can result in mastitis.
What is Mastitis and C/S? Septic inflammation of mammary gland. -Pain -Discolored milk -Fever -Abscessed gland -Reluctant to allow nursing
Treatment for Mastitis? Antibiotics. Warm compresses. Don't allow nursing from affected glands.
What is Pyometra? Pus in uterus
What can high levels of Progesterone cause in uterus? -Hyperplasia & hypertrophy of endometrial glands -Decreased myometrial contractions -Predisposes uterus to bacterial infection *most common is E.Coli
C/S of Pyometra? -Vulvular discharge. Vomiting. Dehydration PU/PD Azotemia
Diagnosis of Pyometra? Radiology. Ultrasound. Bloodwork *Closed pyometra: Leukocytosis, neutrophilia w/left shift
What is an open Pyometra & how is it treated? Cervix is open & allows pus drainage. Ovariohysterectomy, Antibiotics & fluid therapy
What is Vaginitis? Inflammatory process, not infectious
Another name for puppy vaginitis? Prepuberal bitch.
Causes of puppy Vaginitis? Inverted vulva. Hormonal fluctuations.
C/S of puppy Vaginitis & Treatments? Purulent vulvar discharge. Licking vulva. -Systemic Antibiotics -Topical douching
Causes of Adult Vaginitis? Anatomical abnormalities. Canine herpes virus.
Adult Vaginitis C/S? Purulent vulvular discharge. Licking vulva. Peri-vulvar skin irritation/infection. Urinary incontinence.
How does Vaginal hyperplasia/prolapse occur? Under influence of Estrogen. *results in edematous vaginal tissue.
Vaginal hyperplasia/prolapse treatment? Ovariohysterectomy.
Who is Mammary tumors seen in? Older intact females. -50% in female dogs. -3rd most common tumor in cats
True or false. Mammary tumor risk reduces w/ovariohysterectomy. True. *<1% if spayed before 1st heat.
What % of canine/feline tumors are benign? Dogs: 50% Cats: 10-20%
How do you differentiate between benign & malignant? Biopsy.
Define Ovariohysterectomy? Surgical removal of ovaries & uterus.
Define Prostate? Used to produce fluid as transport & support medium for sperm during ejaculation.
Where is the Prostate? Caudal to bladder, encircling proximal urethra at neck of bladder.
What is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia? Enlarged Prostate.
What causes BPH & what are the C/S? Altered androgen/estrogen ratio. Tenesmus. *feel like constantly need to pee.
What is the BPH treatment? Castration. *results in 70% decrease w/in 14 days
Define Prostatitis & what are C/S? Painful infection of Prostate gland. -Lethary -Anorexia
How is Prostatitis diagnosed? Urinalysis. *Hematuria, increased WBC, bacteria present.
Prostatitis treatment? Antibiotics. Castration.
True or false. Prostatic neoplasia is very common & is benign. False. Uncommon & is all malignant.
Tell me about Transmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT) Canines. Spreads during sexual contact. Found on penis, prepuce, & scrotum. *cauliflower-like
TVT treatment? Chemotherapy. Surgical removal of masses.
Define Cryptorchidism? Testicles are retained in abdomen/inguinal canal.
True or false. Dog can no longer produce testosterons, show sexual desire or breed with Cryptorchidism? False.
What tumor is common in retained testicles? Testicular tumor known as Sertoli Cell Tumor.
Cryptorchidism treatment? Castration.
Created by: 100000691343961



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