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orthodontics studies the way in which teeth meet each other
occlusion normal position of the teeth when the jaws are closed
mesocephalic breeds well proportioned skull width and maxillary length; Dalmations, Labs & German Shepherds
Dolichocephalic breeds narrow skull and long maxilla; sight hounds and siamese cats
Brachycephalic Breeds wide skull with a short maxilla; boxers, bulldogs, and persian cats
"scissor" occlusion in dogs lower canine tooth occludes in the front of the upper canine -no incisor or canine tooth surface should touch
Carnassial teeth "Shearing Teeth"; upper fourth premolar tooth and the lower first premolar
"Scissor" occlusion in cats upper incisors and canine slightly overlapping the lower incisors and canines slightly overlapping the lower incisors and canines
Malocclusion abnormality in the position of the teeth -more common in brachycephalic breeds -more common in dogs
Skeletal malocclusion results from jaw length and/or width discrepancy (usually inherited)
Dental malocclusion results from tooth malpositioning
Mandibular Prognathism "underbite" or "undershot jaw" -lower jaw is normal length, but upper jaw is too short -normally in brachycephalic breeds such as bulldogs, pekingese, boston terriers, pugs, and persian cats
mandibular brachygnathism "overshot jaw" "overbite" "parrot mouth" -mandible is shorter than normal and dog had an "overbite" -German Shepherd Dogs, Rottweilers, Collies, Standard Poodles, and Dachshunds
Wry mouth upper and lower right and left quadrant of the moputh is independent of the other -uneven growth which produces a wry occlusion (wry bite) -triangular opening(open bite) will appear in incisor area where affected incisors do not meet
Anterior crossbite "Reverse Scissor" -most common malocclusion in veterinary dentistry -upper incisor teeth are caudal to lower. -most common in medium or large breed dogs. -skeletal or dental malocclusion
treatment for "reverse Scissor" orthodontic movement (braces) or extraction of the abnormal teeth
Posterior Crossbite mandible is wider than the maxilla in the carnassial tooth area -occasionally in boxers, collies, othe dolichocephalic breeds -professional prophylaxis will be needed
retained deciduous teeth most common dental problem in small animal practice -mandibular canines, upper canins, and incisors -extraction almost always necessary
Deciduous v permanent teeth permanent incisors lingual to the deciduous teeth(babies in front) permanent canine teeth lie rostral to deciduous teeth and appear whiter than baby teeth ( babies toward the back)
Supernumerary teeth too many teeth. -10% of dogs and rarely in cats -radiographs differentiate supernumerary from ratained deciduous teeth -no treatment needed unless it causes crowding
Oligodontia "hypodontia" one or more teeth(usually molars or premolars) do not form in dental arcade -usually doesnt cause problems
normal depth of the sulcus dogs: 1-3mm cats: up to 1mm
Depth of sulus determined by periodontal probe
periodontics branch of dentistry concerned with the study and treatment of the periodontium
periodontitis inflammation of the tooth's support -most pets over 5 years old, but can be seen early as 6 months old -four stages
most common disease in dogs and cats periodontitis
Plaque white, slippery film that collects around the gingival sulcus of the tooth -composed of bacteria, food debris, exfoliated cells, salivary glycoproteins
Dental calculus (tartar) mineralized plaque on teeth -brown or yellow deposit -contributes to periodontal disease
Gingivitis inflamed gingiva
Stage I Periodontitis "Gingivitis" reddened gingival tissues, no evidence of attachment loss -halitosis -can occur as early as 7 months old
Stage II Periodontitis "early periodontitis" "advanced gingivitis" inflammation and plaque at free gingival margin with edema present, less than 25% attachment loss -dogs between 1-4 years -
Stage IV Periodontitis "Advanced Periodontal Disease" severe inflammation,attachment loss,deep pocket formation,gum recession,bone loss,pustular discharge,tooth mobility -spontaneously bleeding gums, greater than 50%attachment loss,Grade2,3 mobility single rooted teeth
Stage IV Periodontitis treatment surgical extraction of affected teeth
Stage I Periodontitis Treatment professional dental cleaning
Stage II Periodontitis Treatment scaling, polishing, and home care
Stage III Periodontitis "Established Periodontitis" swelling, inflammation, pocket formation(from attachment loss)
Stage III Periodontitis Treatment merely controllable with therapy
Furcations areas between the roots of multirooted teeth and are indicative of periodontal disease
explorer probe used to grade degree of furcation involvement
Class I Furcation (incipient) less than 1mm. not shown on xray
Class II Furcation (Definite resorption) more than 1mm horizontally into area between the roots
Class III Furcation (through and through) probe passes all the way through furcation. surgery or extraction necessary
Created by: Marie11892