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A&P 1 final

vet 1200 final

QuestionAnswer
the system of glands and hormones is called endocrine system
the principal components of cytoplasm are cytoskeleton, organelles, inclusions, and cytosol
what divides the ventral body cavity into the cranial thoraic cavity and the caudal abdominal cavity the diaphragm
dynamic equilibrium in the body is called homeostasis
a plane across the body that divides it into cranial and caudal parts that are not necessarily equal transverse
what three structures are found in all mammalian cells despite three billion years of evolution cytoplasm, nucleus, and cell membrane
the entire animal body is made up of this many basic tissues 4
ribosomes produce proteins
an example of a macroscopic anatomic part is muscles
what plane is perpendicular to the sagittal and transverse plane dorsal
examples of ligands include neurotransmitters and hormones
located distal to the tarsus on the back of the hind limb plantar surface
located distal to the carpus on the back of the forelimb palamar surface
inflammation of the pleural layers of the abdomen is called peritonitis
this family of molecules can play a vital role in cell to cell recognition or contact signaling membrane receptors
these terms refer to up and down dorsal and ventral
this cell structure modifies, packages, and distributes proteins destined for secretion or intracellular use golgi apparatus
deals with the functions of the body and its parts physiology
deals with the forms and structures of the body and its parts anatomy
single cell, no nucleus, small in size prokaryotic cell
multicellular, nucleated, very large in size eukaryotic cell
the cell memebrane is______ because it allows some molecules in but not others selectively permeable
the lipid bilayer is composed of ____ heads and _____tails hydrophilic; hydrophobic
name all the basic tissue types that make up the body connective, nervous, muscle, epithelial
name the 4 general types of teeth found in a canines mouth incisors, canines, premolars, molars
bottom of the microscope base
supports the oculars and the nosepiece head or body tube
connects the base to the head arm
platform where the slide lies during viewing stage
adjusts the amount of light that passes through the microscope diaphragm
low power(100) 10X
high power(400) 40X
oil immersion(1000) 100X
acts as a flexible boundary between extracellular and intracellular compartments cell membrane
composed of a phospholipid bilayer cell membrane
fine hair like structures on the surface of the cell composed of 9 pairs of mictotubules arranged to encircle a central pair cilia
occur singly and are significantly longer than cilia and are attached to individual cells flagella
inner substance of the cell that has inclusions cytoplasm
fluid of the cell cytosol
power house of the cell that produces 95% of the energy that is used mitochondria
most common organelle in the cell that manufactures a large variety of proteins ribosome
series of flattened tubes stacked on one another and bent into a crescent shape endoplasmic reticulum
have ribosomes on the surface and are involved in protein production rough E.R
connected to the rough E.R lack ribosomes but are active in the synthesis and storage of lipids smooth E.R
specialized vesicle formed by the G.A that is considered the shredder of the cell lysosome
membranous sacs containing enzymes that use oxygen to detoxify the cell of many harmful substances peroxisome
assist in the conversion of free radicals to hydrogen peroxide peroxidases
assist to reduce hydrogen peroxide to water catalases
considered the postal department of the cell golgi apparatus
small, hollow cylinders composed of microtubles that are visible during cell division centrioles
largest organelle in the cell and is considered the control center nucleus
separates the nucleus from the cytosol nuclear envelope
not membrane bound, contains the DNA that controls the synthesis of rRNA nucleolus
has the bases A/T, G/C, formed of double helix, deoxyribose DNA
has the bases A/U, G/C, formed of single helix, ribose RNA
there are ___ types of RNA 3
regulates protein synthesis and other molecular reactions in the cell, made up of DNA and globular proteins chromatin
acids release____ in solutions and bases release____ hydrogen ions; hydroxyl ions
the somatic cell is actively dividing during mitotic phase
certain chemicals, some viruses, and ionizing radiation are considered to be mutagens
the process of building new protein using the information on the mRNA molecule is called translation
a neutral solution has a ph of 7
the end of telophase is marked by cytokinesis
exocytosis of waste products is called excretion
kinetic movement of molecules from a higher concentration to a lower concentration passive diffusion
carrier proteins in the cell membrane assist in moving larger molecules into the cell facilitated diffusion
passive movement of water through a semipermiable membrane from a dilute solution to a more concentrated solution osmosis
liquids will be pushed through the membrane if the pressure on one side is greater than the other filtration
the force that pushes the liquid infiltration hydrostatic pressure
transport of molecules through the membrane that require energy in the form of ATP active transport
brings nutrients into the cell and ejects waste cytosis
growth 1, synthesis, and growth 2 are subgroups of interphase
chromatin condense to form chromosomes, centrioles anchor and form the mitotic spindle prophase
chromosomes line up in the center of the spindle on the metaphase plate metaphase
chromosomes are pulled apart, cell is elongated and cytoplasm constricts at the metaphase plate anaphase
chromosomes unravel to chromotin and nuclear envelope appears telophase
marks the end of telophase cytokinesis
reproductive cells divide by meiosis
somatic cells divide by mitosis
DNA>mRNA>protein in the nucleus transcription
DNA+RNA>protein in the cytoplasm translation
extracellular fluid has the same concentration of dissolved substances as intracellular fluid isotonic
the extracellular fluid is more concentrated than the intracellular fluid hypertonic
the intracellular fluid is more concentrated than the extracellular fluid hypotonic
engulfing solid material phagocytosis
water drinking pinocytosis
DNA that is wrapped with protein chromatin
segment of DNA gene
condensed form of chromatin chromosome
two proteins that control contact inhibition and growth inhibiting release cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases
these glands package their secretions into granular units and release them via exocytosis merocrine glands
polar with apical and basal surfaces, connected by junctional complexes, avascular, innervated 4 characteristic of epithelia
fusion of the outter most layers of the plasma membrane tight junction
strong welded plaque which connects the plasma membrane desmosome
linked by tubular channel proteins called connexons gap junctions
foundation of the cell that is a nonliving mesh work of fibers that cements the cell to underlying tissues basement membrane
store granules until the apex is full then the cell pinches in two and releases the apex into the cell apocrine
store granules until the cell is full then the whole cell is released holocrine
watery secretions with high concentrations of enzymes serous
secretions that are thick, viscous, and composed of glycoproteins mucous
large irregularly shaped cells that manufacture and secrete both the fibers and ground substance characteristic of their particular matrix fibroblast
the most common and rigid type of cartilage in the body hyaline cartilage
histamine and heparin are released by mast cells
type of membrane that lines the respiratory, urinary, and reproductive, tracts mucous
type of membrane that lines the body cavities that aren't exposed to the outside environment serous
type of membrane that covers the outter regions of the body cutaneous
type of membrane that lines the cavities that surround the joints synovial
structure that acts as a partial barrier between the epithelial cell and the underlying connective tissue basement membrane
primary function of leukocytes fight infection
condition characterized by spaces in areolar tissue becoming filled with an excess amount of body fluid is the result of a pahtologic insult edema
presence of effusion in the peritoneal space of the abdominopelvic cavity ascities
when an abnormally large amount of fluid enters a cavity effusion
voluntary, striated, large cells, contain hundreds of nuclei and mitochondria skeletal muscle
involuntary, striated, specialized pacemaker cells cardiac muscle
involuntary, non striated, found in the walls of hollow organs smooth muscle
fragile and thin, found lining surfaces involved in passage of gas or liquid simple squamous
single layer of cube shaped cells occur where secretion and absorption take place simple cubodial
elongated and closely packed together found in excretory ducts simple columnar
multilayered, protects underlying tissues, found where mechanical and chemical stress occur stratified squamous
two layers of cubodial cells, found along large excretory ducts stratified cuboidal
very rare, two layers of columnar cells, stratified columnar
false stratified, found in respiratory tract pseudostratified columnar
found in areas of the body required to expand and contract normally transitional epithelium
no ducts, produce and secret hormones into the bloodstream endocrine gland
glands that do not contain ducts exocrine gland
unicellular exocrine gland, ductless goblet cell
main duct is unbranched simple ducts
main duct is branched compound duct
secretory cells form a long channel of even width tubular
secretory unit forms a rounded sac alveolar
contains both tubular and alveolar quantities tubularalveolar
composed of fiber, holds body together and gives support, most abundant tissue type by weight connective tissue
composed of nonliving extracelllular matrix that provides structural and nutritional support connective tissue
white, strong, thick strands of collagen found in tendons and ligaments collagenous fibers
thin delicate branched networks of collagen found around blood vessels, nerves, muscle fibers, and capillaries reticular fibers
branched networks of protein elastic that occurs in tissues subject to stretching elastic fibers
medium through which cells exchange nutrients and waste with the blood stream ground substance
involved in the production and maintenance of the matrix fixed cells
involved in the protection and repair wandering cells
initiate the inflammatory response mast cells
areolar, reticular, and adopose tissues are loose connective tissues
tightly packed arrangement of collagen fibers dense connective tissue
loose, surrounds every organ, forms sq layer of skin, present in all mucous membranes areolar connective tissue
loose, network of thin reticular fibers, forms the stroma reticular connective tissue
loose, acts as energy storehouse and thermal insulator adipose tissue
found throughout the adult animal white adipose tissue
found in newborns and animals that hibernate brown adipose tissue
composed of tightly packed parallel collagen fibers, makes up tendons and ligaments dense regualar
composed of collagen fibers arranged in thick bundles, forms tough capsule of joints dense irregualr
erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes blood
component of connective tissue that acts as a shock absorbing cushion and helps to protect more delicate cells ground substance
the matrix of blood plasma
granulation tissue is composed of collagen fibers made by fibroblasts
the word used to describe the movement of leukocytes through walls of tiny blood vessels diapedesis
found in the joints, ear, nose, and vocal cords cartilage
composed of closely packed collagen, most common type found in body hyaline cartilage
contains thick bundles of collagen fibers, found in spaces between vertebra, bones in the pelvic girdle and knee joint fibro cartilage
composed of elastic fibers in dense branching bundles, flexible, found in epiglottis elastic cartilage
moves the body inside and out, composed of actin and myosin muscles
found in brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves, control body functions nervous tissue
longest cells in the body neurons
the cell body of the neuron that contains the nucleus perikaryon
short cytoplasmic extensions of the neuron that recieves impulses dendtives
long, single extensions of the neuron that conduct impulses away from the cell body axon
support the neurons neuroglial cells
the measurement of the amount of energy that could be acquired from a nutrient molecule kilocalorie(calorie)
the six categories of nutrients water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals
nutrients that the body can not make that are obtained through dietary intake essential nutrients
the percentage of absorbable protein that is avaliable for productive body functions biological value of proteins
the stage of cellular respiration that produces the majority of ATP for the cell electron transport chain
these minerals function to give bones strength calcium, phosphorous, and magnesium
the citric acid cycle occurs in the mitochondria
this is a byproduct of stage 1 of catabolism ATP
carbohydrates are divided into 3 catagories: sugars, starches, cellulose
glucose is readily used to make ATP through a process called glycolysis
what organ is most sensitive to glucose levels the brain
four major categories of lipids neutral fats, phospholipids, steroids, and eicosanoids
triglycerides, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids neutral fats
two fatty acids attached to the glycerol extending one direction phospholipids
take the form of four interlocking hydrocarbon rings steroids
used in the formation of bile salts and to aid in fat digestion cholesterol
keeps the fluidity and rigidity of the plasma membrane cholesterol
formed from a 20in fatty acid and a ring structure eicosanoids
consists of protaglandins, thromboxane, and leukotrienes eicosanoids
essential fatty acid that must be avaliable in the diet that is found in vegetables linolic acid
the building blocks of proteins amino acids
a basic amine group, organic acid group, and an R group composition of amino acids
what links two amino acids together dehydration synthesis
links the carboxyl group to the amino group peptide bond
a short chain of two amino acids dipeptides
a chain of three amino acids tripeptiedes
a chain of ten or more amino acids polypeptides
a chain of 100 or more amino acids protein
Created by: chop