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garcia 4

Growth Physiology

Do cadherins appear and disappear during windows of development? Why or why not? Cadherins appear and disappear because they allow morphological changes and have windows of development where they are needed.
What is Specification? As somites are forming, mesenchymal cells are figuring out what they're going to be.
What do mesenchymal cells determine? They determine what bones and muscles will form in that undifferentiated state.
What is Hox gene? And give an example of the gene. The developmental protein, prevalent in embryo stage and fetus but not adult. Hox C8 is an example of the Hox gene and it is responsible for the formation of the thoracic vertebrae and ribs.
List the two derivatives of the somites. Sclerotome and dermamyotome.
Describe the Sclerotome. Ventral half of the somite. Cells will differentiate into cartilage producing cells. Notochord is responsible for secreting SHH to initiate sclerotome.
Define SHH and what it stimulates. Sonic Hedge Hog. Stimulates production of Pax 1. It is a transcription regulator for cartilage proteins. It stimulates I-mp Factor in the sclerotome and is an inhibitor of myogenic genes.
What are the regulators of somite destiny? Notochord, neural tube, ectoderm, mesoderm.
What are the two roles of SHH? From the neural tube: Stimulates nerve tissue. From somite sclerotome: stimulates cartilage for bone.
Describe dermamyotome. And the three lineages. Makes skin and muscle. Epaxial lineage - back (dorsal) muscles hypaxial lineage - ventral, and body cavity wall muscle (inside muscle, lining body wall) Dermis - comes from the actual somite, has pressure nerves, gets replenishment of skin and hide.
What does WnT 1 do? regulates muscle formation. The neural tube primarily secretes WnT1 to regulate epaxial formation.
What is BMP? Bone Morphogenic Protein. Regulates bone formation and can turn on or off the bone genes. It helps nervous tissue development by inhibiting bone development around neural tube to protect it.
Where does the myotome come from? Dermamytome.
What are the two areas where BMP4 is secreted? And describe. Ectodermal BMP4 - regulates neural tube which initiates WnT production Lateral Plate mesoderm BMP4 - directly regulates hypaxial dermamyotome cells to delay differentiation to myogenic cells.
Why isn't WnT secreted from the bottom of the neural tube? It is secreted from the top of the neural tube because it is closest to the ectoderm and there is not blood circulation.
Describe Lateral Plate mesoderm (FGF-5). Regulates differentiation of myogenic cells and only affects the hypaxial cells and will be mesenchymal cells until they start differentiating.
What affects the epaxial cells? Neural tube.
What is NT-3? What does it regulate? Neurotropin 3, and regulates dermamyotome dermis cells. The dermis cells regulate migration and differentiation to become deep tissue of ectoderm.
What is the notochord fate? Most cells commit suicide (apoptosis) and some go on to become discs of the spinal chord.
Describe myogenisis. It is the formation of muscle tissue during the embryonic develpoment. The mature myoblasts then become dedicated to creating muscle tissue and the immature myoblasts become stem cells or satellite cells (can replenish muscle tissue in the adult phase).
What are the muscle regulatory factors? MyoD, MyF5, MRF4.
What are redundant genes? And give an example. One gene or protein will take place of the missing gene or protein. Insulin - IGF is an example.
What are the contractile proteins of the muscle genes? Mysoin and actin.
Why are the Muscle Genses initially low? Because proliferation and migration have to happen first.
What are the three different muscle tissue types and their striations? Skeletal muscle: Straited Cardiac Muscle: striated and branched Smooth: no striations
Describe whether the three muscle tissue types are multinucleated or not, they can regenerate or not, and their regulation. Skeletal: Multinucleated, no regeneration and it is voluntary. Cardiac: multinucleated, no regeneration, and it is involuntary. Smooth: single nuclei, regeneration, and it is involuntary.
Describe the myotube formation. Myoblasts proliferate and migrate to the region of the embryo where the muscle type is located. The myoblasts begin to align themselves, and fibronectin expression increases.
What is fibronectin? The adhesion proteins that help and hold the cells align together.
Fusion Getting rid of the cell membrane that is initiated by waves of Ca release. Meltrins are what mediate the Ca waves.
What is a sarcomere? Contractile unit.
What are the thick and thin filaments? Myosin is the thick filament and actin is the thin filament.
What is the Dark "A" band composed of? Myosin (very thick) Actin (thin but overlaps with myosin)
What is the Light "I" band composed of? Titin (very thin) Actin (thin) Z-line (very thin)
What creates the contraction occurrence? The binding between myosin and actin.
What is myofibrillogenisis? The formation of a sarcomere in cardiac and skeletal muscle.
What is osteogenisis? Synonymous with ossification. It is the formation of the bone during fetal development.
What are the two types of ossification and describe them. Intramembranous Ossification: No cartilage template, skull. Endochondral Ossification: All other bones especially the limbs, have cartilage template.
Created by: grisgomez



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