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Midterm for VT2000

Chapters 10, 14, 21, 34

A comprehensive history of a puppy or kitten includes: hx of mom, dad, relatives, and other littermates, # of ill, how long the clinical signs have been happening, moms vx history, any additives etc given to mom during pregnancy, difficulty during birth, behavior, body weight curves
Instruments specific to a neonate exam Pediatric stethoscope with 2cm bell and thermometer that reads to 84 degrees
Can neonates regulate their body temperature for the first 2 week of their life? no
How do you check hydration status in a neonate? MM--cannot use skin turgor at this age
Ventral abdomen is normally hairless and what color? Dark pink
A ventral abdomen that is bluish or red in a neonate is a sign of? Distress
What discharge is normal in a neonate? Urine and feces
What is the other term for a soft spot? Open fontanelle
What is the term used for a neonate that has a flat chest? Swimmer's syndrome or pectus excavatum
Bulging of the eyelids is a sign of? Infection
Bulges in the neck happen for 3 reasons, what are those? Gas in the esophagus, goiter, ectopic heart
Puppies should be _________ and kittens should be __________. Pudgy, lean
When a neonate sucks/chews on your fingers, this is what reflex and when is it present? Suckling reflex--present at birth
When a neonate presses their head into a bowed hand this is what reflex and when is it present? Pressing reflex--present at birth
If you pick a puppy up by the scruff and it curls up, this is what reflex and how old is the neonate? Flexor tone--younger than 3-4 days
When you hold a neonate by the scruff and it stretches out, this is what reflex and how old is the neonate? Extensor tone--at least 4 days old
How much of their day do neonates spend sleeping in the first week? 80%
How often do neonates eat? every 2-4 hours
What motor skills are neonates born with? Crawling, suckling, distress vocalization
What stimuli do neonates respond to? Odor, touch, pain
By day 3, what can the neonates do? Lift their head
By day 7 what can the neonates do? Crawl coordinated
By the end of day 1 the umbilical cord dries up, it falls of when? By day 2-3
Neonates eyes open at? 7-12 days
Neonates ears open at? 14-16 days
When their eyes open, the iris is what color? Bluish grey
When their eyes open, the cornea is? Cloudy
When drawing blood from a neonate you should use what vein? Jugular
You can not remove any more than what percent of a neonates blood in a week? 10%
Why is a cystocentesis contraindicated in neonates? Their skin is too fragile.
If you have a hypothermic neonate, should you tube feed them? No!!
Why should you not feed a hypothermic neonate? Aspiration=pneumonia Fermentation of food=bloat=dyspnea=swallowing of air=collapse/death
When correcting hypothermia in a neonate, you should not heat them any quicker than _______ degrees an hour 2
What does the blood sugar have to be at for you to see clinical signs of hypoglycemia? <30
What do you measure a feeding tube from? Nose to end of ribs
What is the time leading up to estrus? Proestrus
What is the time of mating? Estrus
What is the time when pregnancy is established? Diestrus
What is the time of no activity in reproduction system? Anestrus
What are the 3 parts of the ovaduct? Infundibulum, ampulla, isthmus
What happens in Stage I of parturition? Prepping for delivery, nesting
What happens in Stage II of parturition? Birth of the baby
What happens in Stage III of parturition? Expulsion of the placenta
A canine pregnancy can be palpated around what day? Day 21
A canine pregnancy can be radigraphed after what day? Day 45
A canine pregnancy can be dianosed with a hormone assay at what day? Day 28
A canine pregnancy can be diagnosed with ultrasound at what day? Day 20-term
What is a pseudopregnancy? False pregnancy, where female is not actually pregnant, but shows signs of it
What can Canine Brucellosis cause? Spontaneous abortion and infertility
Feline pregnancy can be palpated from day _______ to ________. 16-30
What are sensible fluid losses? Urine, vomiting, diarrhea
What are insensible fluid losses? Water in feces, panting
What are ways that you can check the hydration status of a patient? mm, CRT, HCT, skin turgor, TP determination, SG, sunken eyes
1lb=1pt=_______ml 480
What is the equation for a fluid deficit? wt(kg)*%dehydrated*1000
What is the equation for maintenance fluids? 30ml/lb/24hrs or 60ml/kg/24hr wt(kg or lbs)*30 or 60
What is the equation for contemporary fluid loss? amt lost/day*2
When is oral fluid therapy contraindicated? When a pt is vomiting or when a severe electrolyte imbalance needs to be fixed
How often does an IV catheter need to be changed? Every 72 hrs
What are signs of fluid overload? Restlessness, chemosis, pitting edema, hyperpnea, serous nasal discharge
When taking blood from a donor patient, it needs to come from what vein? Jugular
ACD has a shelf life of how many days? 14
CDS has a shelf life of how many days? 21
CPDA-1 has a shelf life of how many days? 35-45
Can you give blood cold? No it needs to be warmed to 37 degrees celcius or room temperature.
When is oxygen therapy indicate in a patient? pulmonary edema, bronchopneumonia, upper airway dz in bradycephalic breeds, lung collapse, shock
What does a pulse ox measure? Hemoglobin concentration
What are the ways to administer oxygen therapy? Cage, mask, intratracheal tube, intranasal catheter
What are the 4 stages of wound healing? inflammatory, debridement, repair, maturation
When does the inflammatory stage begin? Immediately after injury
When does the debridement stage begin? 6hr post injury
When does the repair stage begin? 3-5 days post injury
When does the maturation stage begin? 5 days post injury
What are host factors? Have to do with the animal, age, health, nutrition, etc
What are external factors? steroids, antiiflammatories, chemotherapy, radiation
What should you do immediately with a wound? Cover it with something clean
What is wound lavage? Flushing a wound with moderate pressue, using an electrolyte balanced fluid
What are the 4 ways to debride a wound? Surgically, en bloc, hypertonic solutions, enzymatic
What is primary wound closure? Suturing it closed?
What is the "Golden Period?" 6-8 hrs post injury when a laceration can still be sutured closed
What is delayed primary wound closure? Suturing of the wound 1-3 days after injury, before granulation tissue is present
What is second intention healing? Healing by contraction and epithelialization
What is third intention healing? Known as secondary closure, suturing 3-5 days after injury, granulation tissue is present
What is the first layer of a bandage? Primary/contact
What is the second layer of a bandage? Padding
What is the third layer of a bandage? Tertiary/protective
Most casts are made of what material? Fiberglass
What is the difference between a Robert Jones and a Modified Robert Jones? Modified Robert Jones is not nearly as thick
What sling is used to immobilize a hind leg after a hip dislocation? Ehmer sling
What sling is used to prevent stifle stiffening? 90-90 Flexion sling
What sling is used to totally immobilize every joint in a front leg? Velpeau's sling
What sling makes a dog/cat carry their fron leg? Carpal flexion sling
What keeps the rear legs from adducting? Hobbles
Created by: lsondermann



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