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garcia 3

Growth Physiology

what is neurulation? is the formation of the neural tube, notocord, the epiderm and neural cells.
What is Somite? Blocks of cells of the mesoderm.
Two types of abnormalities that develop during abnormal neurolation. myelomeningocele and anencephale.
describe myelomeningocele spina bifida, when there is a pocket and the spinal chord is in that pocket outside the body. This can be lethal but some people survive depending on the severity. Myelomeniingocele forms in the posterior portion of the neural tube.
Describe anencephale. forms as a result of incomplete neurulation when the brain is sticking out because there was no closure of the cranial bones. This is lethal. Anencephale forms in the anterior portion of the neural tube.
The notochord is essential in the formation of the ribs FALS.
Somites are formed from the ectoderm. FALSE.
What does DLHP mean? Where are these cells located? What is their fumction? DHLP - Dorsal Lateral Hinge Point cells. These cells are located on the side of the neural folds but towards the top and they pull the folds out so the top of the neural plate folds in and the epidermis fuses together. (convergence)
In what direction are somites formed? Laterally
What is the neurulation process? The neurulation plate formation. It develops from the post mesoderm and endoderm formation. Creates the cylindrical neural tube.
In the neural process, what is shaping? Cells in the primitive streak proliferate and elongate tremendously. The streak gives a signal to start forming the neural plate. A thickening occurs and a mountain-like surface forms.
In the neurulation process, what is folding? The edges of the neural plate proliferate. The MHP cells form an anchor and chemically hold on to the proliferating and elongating cells in the center which then form a really deep valley. The neural folds, neural groove and notochord form.
In the neurulation process, what is migration? The cells are actually moving. The neural groove is more prominent, cells keep moving and form more organized neural tube. Folding ends are more prominent and there is official shape.
In the neurulation process, what is convergence? The fusion of the Neural folds. DLHP cells pull the folds inwards and prevent the cells from stacking more.
What completes the formation and creates the neural tube? The neural groove/Neural plate.
What is somitogenisis? Creation of the actual body.
What are the two categories of Somite Formation? Periodicity and Somite Separation,
What is periodicity? Designated time frame where somites form along the neural tube. The paraxial cells of the mesoderm become organized and whorled. Which happen along each side of the neural tube. Somites form from anterior to posterior.
What is somite separation? Whorls will separate from the "whorl" tube of mesoderm cells. The anterior portion is organized, dense and complex. The posterior portion is loose and incomplete.
What causes morphogenic changes? Ephrin Proteins.
What are ephrin proteins? Shape change mesoderm cells to create a somite.
What are mesenchymal cells? Amorphous, undifferentiated stem cells with a star shaped pattern.
Name the two Ephrin proteins and what they are. Ephrin B2 - Ligand Ephrin A4 - Receptor
What is epithelialization? Cells that line all surfaces. Cells on the surface of the forming somite that begin to morphogenically change to a cuiboidal shape, and they define the borders of the somite. The ephrin appears and whorls, and signal mesenchymal cells to change (B2).
What are the two adhesion proteins? And describe them. Cadherins and Fibronectin. Cadherins are proteins that allow cellular organization of the somite. Fibronectin facilitates morphology change and blood clotting.
Describe the Windows of Development. They are periods of time where certain activities and phenomena take place only in a certain time frame. If a process is delayed by a second, then everything will be incorrect and NOT perfect as it would have been if the processes were on time.
Created by: grisgomez