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A&P CH 7 part 1

Anatomy of Muscle

voluntary, striated skeletal muscle
involuntary, striated cardiac muscle
involuntary, unstriated smooth muscle
muscles consist of many bundles surrounded by connective tissue or fascia
typical muscle appears to have this one "belly" or skeletal muscle mass with a tendon at each end
fibrous connective tissue bands; attach all muscle to bone tendons
bone to bone ligament
instead of tendons, attach by broad sheets of fibrous connective tissue ex. linea alba aponeuroses
most prominent aponeuroses linea alba
proximal attachment; the more stable of a muscles attachment sites origin
distal attachment; undergoes most of the movement when a muscle contracts insertion
when stimulated by a nerve impulse a muscle contracts or shortens action
drugs that bind to receptors and produce stimulatory responses agonist
drugs that prevent agonists from binding to receptors antagonist
wave of signal through the nervous system action potential
stimulates signal to move impulse
a muscle or muscle group that directly produces a desired movement agonist/ prime mover
a muscle or muscle group that directly opposes the action of a prime mover antagonist
a muscle that contracts at the same time as a prime mover and assists it in carrying out its action synergist
muscles that stabilize joints to allow other movements to take place fixator
muscles are named according to these criteria action, shape, location, direction of fibers, # of heads, attachment sites
each myofibril is made up of many ____ lined end to end; these are basic contracting units of skeletal muscle sarcomeres
very large, multinucleate, numerous myofibrils, multiple mitochondria skeletal muscle cells
thick myosin filaments A bands
thin actin filaments I bands
dark line in the center of the I band Z line
sites where the ends of motor nerve fibers connect to muscle fibers neuromuscular junction (NMJ
tiny sacs within the end of a nerve fiber in an NMJ synaptic vesicles
in skeletal muscle synaptic vesicles are filled with this acetylcholine (ACh)
chemical that travels from nerve fiber to the muscle fiver, bridging the synaptic space neurotransmitter
memorize figure on page 6 of powerpoint or page 201 in book for quiz VII
How does the nerve fiber tell the muscle to contract? 1. Nerve impulse comes down nerve fiber 2. ACh is released into the synaptic space 3. ACh diffuses across synaptic space 4. ACh binds to recepters leads to contraction
one nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers it innervates motor unit
key and lock must be homologous
what is essential from muscle contraction and relaxation calcium
Binding of ACh to muscle cells membrane receptors starts an impulse. 1. impulse reaches the SR 2. Calcium ions released into the cytoplasm from the SR 3. contraction process turned on powered by ATP 4. calcium pumped back into SR (also uses ATP) initiation of muscular contraction and relaxation
individual muscle fiber either contracts completely or not at all when stimulated by an impulse "all or nothing" principle
how does the body produce movements that vary in range and strength? controls # of muscle fibers it stimulates at one time
controls how many fibers are stimulated to contract nervous system
energy source for muscle contraction ATP
when one of the phosphate groups are broken off of ATP to form ADP, energy is released to power contraction
molecule that causes the addition of a P group onto ADP to make ATP creatine phosphate
source of energy to make ATP and creatine phosphate come from catabolism of nutrients --> glucose and o2
glucose is stored in muscle fibers in the form of glycogen
o2 is stored in fibers attached to a protein called myoglobin
as long as o2 supply is adequate to keep up with energy needs of a fiber aerobic metabolism
if need for o2 is greater than available supply muscle fibers shift over to anaerobic metabolism
time between nerve stimulus and beginning of contraction 10ms latent phase
lasts about 40 ms contracting phase
lasts about 50 ms relaxation phase
a large amount of the energy produced in muscles is in the form of heat
small, spindle-shaped; single nucleus cells smooth muscle cells
large sheets of cells in the walls of some hollow organs; contracts in large; rhythmic waves innervated by parasympathetic and sympathetic systems visceral smooth muscle
small, discrete groups of cells; contraction requires autonomic nervous system impulse multiunit smooth muscle
small cells with a single nucleus; intercalated disks; allow transmission of impulses from cell to cell cardiac muscle
generates the impulse that starts with each heartbeat; pacemaker sinoatrial node
impulse follows a controlled path through this conduction system
stimulate the heart sympathetic fibers
inhibit cardiac function parasympathetic fibers
Created by: maiken



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