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VET 1055 CH 8

Have a Heart

delivers oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to various body tissues and transports waste products to the appropriate waste removal systems cardiovascular system
cavity that contains the heart, large blood vessels, trachea, esophagus, lymph nodes, and other structures mediastinum
double-walled membrane surrounding the heart pericardium
external layer of the heart epicardium
middle and thickest layer of the heart, the actual heart muscle myocardium
inner layer of the heart, lines the heart chambers and valves endocardium
arteries that serve the heart coronary arteries
remove waste products from the myocardium coronary veins
disruption of blood to myocardium may be caused by this coronary occlusion(blockage)
deficiency in the blood supply to an area ischemia
tissue death necrosis
area of necrosis due to ischemia infarct or infarction
craniodorsal chanbers of the heart where all vessels enter atria, atrium
left and right atria are seperated by this interatrial septum
caudoventral chambers of the heart ventricles
ventricles seperated by this interventricular septum
narrow tip of the heart apex
membranous fold valve
valve controls the opening between the right atrium and right ventricle right atrioventricular valve (right AV valve) or tricuspid valve
located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and controls blood entering the lungs; shaped like half moon pulmonar semilunar valve, pulmonary valve
valve controls the opening between the left atrium and left ventricle left atrioventricular valve, mitral valve, bicuspid valve
located between the left ventricle and the aorta and controls blood entering the arterial system aortic semilunar valve
volume of blood pumped by the heart per unit time cardiac output
establishes the basic rhytem of the heart (pacemaker of the heart)also has these muscle cells sinoatrial node, Purkinje fibers
atrial contraction atrial systole
force of contraction inotropy
electrical impulses from the SA node travel to this atrioventricular node
located in the interventricular septum bundle of His
ventricular contraction ventricular systole
normal heart rhythm sinus rhythm
abnormal rhythm arrhythmia or dysrhythmia
heartbeat sensations that feel like pounding with or without irregularity in rhythm palpitation
rapid, random, and ineffective heart contractions fibrillation
cardiac arrhythmia in which atrial contractions are rapid but regular flutter
abnormally slow heartbeat bradycardia
abnormally fast heartbeat tachycardia
sudden convulsion or spasm paroxysm
irregular heart rhythm resulting from variation in vagal nerve tone as a result of respiration normal sinus arrhythmia
without contraction or lack of heart activity, flat line on ECG asystole
temporary suspension of respiration and circulation syncope
low-frequency vibrations occuring during early diastole and late diastole gallop
contraction systole
expansion, atria fill with blood, then contract diastole
ventricular end-diastolic volume, volume of blood entering the right side of the heart preload
ventricular emptying presented by aortic pressure afterload
ECG, EKG; record of electrical activity of the myocardium electrocardiogram
act of listening to body sounds auscultation
abnormal sound associated with the turbulent flow of blood heart murmur
narrowing or aortic or pulmonic valve stenosis
abnormal swooshing cardiac sounds that progressively increase in loudness crescendo murmurs
abnormal swooshing cardiac sounds that progressively decrease in loudness decrescendo murmurs
vibration felt in palpation thrill
opening in a vessel through which fluid flows lumen
things that narrow a vessel's diameter vasoconstrictors
things that narrow a vessel's diameter vasodilators
depression where vessels and nerves enter an organ hilus
main trunk of the arterial system that begins from the left ventricle of the heart aorta
supplies the liver, stomach, spleen celiac artery
supplies the kidneys renal arteries
supply the ovaries avarian arteries
supply the testicles testicular arteries
artery under the collarbone subclavian artery
smaller branches of arteries arterioles
single-cell-thick vessels that connect the arterial and venous systems capillaries
blood flow through tissues perfusion
tiny blood vessels that carry blood to veins venules
return blood to the heart veins
within a vein intravenous
around the vessels perivascular
within an artery intra-arterial
tension exerted by blood on the arterial walls blood pressure
rhythmic expansion and contraction of an artery produced by pressure pulse
resistance to flow viscosity
measures blood pressure sphygmomanometer
occurs when the ventricles contract and is highest toward the end of the stroke output of the left ventricle systolic pressure
occurs when the ventricles relax and is lowest late in ventricular dilation diastolic pressure
high blood pressure hypertension
drugs used to lower blood pressure antihypertensives
radiographic study of the blood vessels and heart using contrast material angiocardiography
radiographic study of the blood vessels following injection of radiopaque material angiography
radiographic study in which a catheter is passed into a blood vessel and is guided into the heart to detect pressures and patterns of blood flow cardiac catheterization
process of evaluating the heart structures using sound waves echocardiography
recording the electrical activity of the heart electrocardiography
24-hour ECG that records the heart rates and rhythms onto a specialized tape recorder Holter moniter
procedure of imaging objects by exposing sensitized films to xrays radiography
constricting band applied to a limb to control bleeding or to assist in drawing blood tourniquet
localized baloonlike enlargement of an artery aneurysm
disease of vessels angiopathy
inability of the aortic valve to perform at the proper levels, which results in blood flowing back into the left ventricle from the aorta aortic insufficiency
hardening and narrowing of arteries artheroschlerosis
compression of the heart due to fluid or blood collecting in the pericardial sac cardiac tamponade
heart enlargement cardiomegaly
disease of heart muscle cardiomyopathy
inflammation of the heart carditis
insufficient cardiac output to meet the body's needs congestive heart failure
alterations in the structure or function of the right ventricle caused by pulmonary hypertension cor pulmonale
heartworm infection dirofilariosis
foreign object that is circulating in blood embolus
blockage of a vessel by a foreign object embolism
inflammation of the endocardium and sometimes the heart valves endocarditis
interference with the electrical conduction of the heart heart block
benign tumor comprised of newly formed blood vessels hemangioma
collection of blood hematoma
above-normal levels of carbon dioxide; results in reduced levels of oxygen hypercapnia
below-normal levels of carbone dioxide hypocapnia
below-normal levels of oxygen hypoxia
deficiency in blood supply ischemia
inability of the left atrioventricular valve to perform at the proper level mitral valve insufficiency
abnormal protrusion of the left atrioventricular valve that results in incomplete closure of the valve mitral valve prolapse
inflammation of the myocardium myocarditis
blockage in a vessel occlusion
persistance of teh fetal communitation between the left pulminary artery and aorta that should close shortly after birth patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
inflammation of the pericardium pericarditis
narrowing of the opening and valvular area between the pulmonary artery and right ventricle pulmonic stenosis
backflow of blood caused by imperfect closure o fheart valves regurgitation
inadequate tissue perfusion shock
congenital cyanotic cardiac condition that classically has four anotomical defects in the hart tetralogy of Fallot
blood clot attached to the interior wall of a vein or artery thrombus
inflammation of a blood or lymph vessel vasculitits
opening in the wall dividing the right and left ventricles that may allow blood to shunt from right to left without becoming oxygenated ventricular septal defect
iatrogenic produced by treatment
surgical repair of blood or lymph vessels angioplasty
sutre of a vessel angiorrhaphy
surgical removal of part of a blood vessel that carries blood away from heart arteriectomy
incision of a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart arteriotomy
tension exerted by blood in the cranial vena cava central venous pressure
use of electrical shock to restore normal heart rhythm defibrillation
control or stoppage of bleeding hemostasis
small expander implanted in a blood vessel to prevent collapsing stent
introduction of whole blood or blood components into the bloodstream of the recipient transfusion
surgical incision into a valve or membranous flap valvotomy
Created by: maiken



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