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A&P 1 Ch 6 Part 2

The Skeletal System 2

What are the bones of the thoracic limbs? scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, carpal bones, metacarpal bones, phalanges
joint surfaces articular surfaces
large, round articular surface condyle
spherical articular surface at the proximal head of a long bone head
flat, articular surface facet
projections off a bone surface processes
depressed area fossa
hole in a bone foramen
shoulder bone; flat triangular bone scapula
prominent longitudinal ridge on the lateral surface spine of the scapula
shallow concave surface forming the "socket" portion of the shoulder joint glenoid cavity
only cats have this shoulder bone clavicle
scapula also has these two fossa supraspinous and infaspinous fossa
long bone of the upper arm; largest bone of the thoracic limb humerus
upper arm brachium
proximal end of humerus; ball of the shoulder joint; connects to the scapula head of humerus
allow the muscle attachments that make movement possible in humerus greater and lesser tubercle
humerus ends in this that allows pulley-like movement of the elbow humeral condyle
first bone of forearm; forms the elbow joint with the distal end of the humerus radius
term meaning forearm antebrachium
second bone of the forearm; long and thin serves mainly for muscle attachment and formation of the elbow joint ulna
large process on proximal ulna that forms the point of the elbow olecranon process
two rows of short bones arranged parallel to each other carpus
horse carpus knee
human carpus wrist
extend from distal row of carpal bones to the proximal phalanges of the digits metacarpal bones
hard outer coverings of the distal digits, usually pigmented claws
evolutionary remnants of digits dewclaw
number of digits in horse 1
number of digits in dog 5
number of digits in cattle 4
see powerpoint presentation for details of equine limb ....
bones of the pelvic limb pelvis, femus, patella (fabellae), tibia, fibula, tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, phalanges
starts developing as three separate bones on each side (six total) that fuse into a solid structure pelvis
two halves of pelvis joined ventrally by cartilagenous joint symphasis pelvis
forward-most bone of the pelvis ilium
caudal-most pelvic bone ishium
smallest pelvic bone, located medially pubis
socket for the head of femur; the 3 bones on each side of the pelvis come together to form "hip socket" acetabulum
sciatic nerve runs through this; two large holes located on either side of symphysis pelvis obturator foramen
long bone of the thigh; head of this bone forms "ball" of hip joint; fits into acetabulum of pelvis femur
opposite the head on proximal end of the femur are two large processes greater trochanter
distal end of femur forms this joint with the tibia and patella stifle joint, knee
smooth articular groove in which patella rides trochlea
largest sesamoid bone in body patella (kneecap)
bones that are embedded in tendons sesamoid bones
two small sesamoid bones located in the proximal calf muscle tendons (dogs/cats only) fabellae
main weight-bearing bone of the lower leg, forms stifle joint with femur above; forms hock joint with tarsus below tibia
runs along length of tibia, but does not support weight fibula
distal end, lateral aspect of fibula (knob of ankle) lateral malleolus
ankle (hock); two rows of short bones tarsus
fibular tarsal bone has this; projects upward and backward to form the "point of the hock"; insertion point for the achilles tendon calcaneal tuberosity; calcaneus
almost exactly the same as the metacarpal bones metatarsal bones
bone in the penis in canines os Penis
supports the valves of the heart in sheep and cattle os Cordis
nose of the swine os Rostri
junctions between bones joints
study of joints arthrology
synarthroses, immovable; sutures in skull fibrous joints
amphiarthroses, slightly movable; pelvic symphysis, mandibular symphysis cartilagenous joints
diarthroses, freely movable; shoulder, stifle joint synovial joints
smooth surfaces of bones where they rub together in joint articular surface
thin layer of hyaline cartilage that covers the articular surface, smooth movement, decrease friction articular cartilage
fluid filled space between joint surfaces joint cavity
surrounds the joint cavity (fibrous tissue and synovial membrane) joint capsule
bands of fibrous connective tissue; attach bone to bone ligaments
attach muscle to bone tendons
decreases angle flexion
increases angle extension
toward medial plane adduction
away from medial plane abduction
twisting movement rotation
distal end moves in a circle circumduction
one joint surface swivels around another; only flexion and extension hinge joints
rocking motion of one bone on the other; flexion/extension/some adduction/abduction gliding joints
bone rotates on another; rotation only pivot joints
most extensive movements; all movements possible ball-and-socket joints
Created by: maiken



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