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why consider animal behavior? management (breeding, feeding, husbandry) reduce stressors, improve productivity, public relations
Signal and reaction: stimulus and response, input output
3 origins of animal behaviour innate, experience/learned, intelligence
innate behavior inborn;instinct;reflexes, genetically linked traits, behavior persists in absence of learning, may be modified with environmental experiences
genetic influence nervous system development, protein synthesis, animals only show those behaviors for which they possess the appropriate neural structure and mechanisms
experience/learned behaviors habituation, conditioning, insight learning, imprinting
habituation most primitive and universal form of learning, gradual fading of unlearned response to stimulus that proves to be safe or irrelevant, stimulus is generally something new or different
conditioning: classical changes in stimuli that elicit a behavior based on natural stimulus response systems, learns to respond to a previously neurtral stimulus in the same manner as a normal stimulus
conditioning: operant response (operants) -> consequences (reinforcing stimulus) think electric fences
insight learning higher animals, ability to respond correctly when first exposed to a stimulus, reasoning, problem solving
imrprinting form of social learning, learning properties of a stimulus object toward whih the animal directs its normal behavior (feeding, social), narrow learning window during early development
intelligence learned ability of an animal to adjust successfully to environmental situations, learn from experience to solve problems, wide inter and intraspecies variations
sexual behavior cows, ewes, and mares have pheromones (stimuli) in their vaginal secretions and urine to attract males
flehmen a response made by males when they are using a nasal organ to detect the pheromones of a female
standing heat cows in estrus allow themselves to be mounted by other cows, ewes allow vasectomized rams to mount them during estrus
caregiving and solicitation sows are the only livestock species that do not lick their young
mothers become ____________ when their young are vocalizing aggressive
most mothers recognize their young by ___________ olfaction
fight/flight when an animal comes in contact with another animal or human
males are agressive offense, defense, escape, passivity
females show aggression in: pecking order
what determines social rank? age, size, strength, genetic background, and previous experience
ingestive behavior cattle graze for 4-9 hours, and ruminate 4-9 hours
sheep and goats graze for: 9-11 hours a day
sheep and goats ruminate for: 7-10 hours per day
cattle range up to ___ miles 3
sheep range up to ___ miles 8
horses graze up to ___ hours a day 18
allelomimetic behavior pack behavior, animals tend to do things at the same time, animals fed together consume more then those fed separate
eliminative behavior hogs and occasionally horses are discriminate defecators and all farm animals usually defecate either standing or walking
farm animals have an average ___ % shrink in transit to market because of defecation from stress 3
shelter seeking behavior pigs pile to keep warm, cattle and horses seek shelter from trees in a storm, shade is sought after in hot weather
investigative behavior farm animals are usually very curious if not frightened
sheep are less ____________ and more __________ by nature inquistive, timid
horses and cattle behavior during handling and restraint shadows and movements disturb them, chutes with solid sides advantageous, animals of all species are more calm if they become acclimated to people moving around them
flight zones ________ among species vary
animals are _________ when humans are outside of their flight zone inquisitive
_______ ___________ and _________ such as blood can increase an animals flight zone loud noises and smells
repetitive exposure to stimuli can ___________ an animals flight zone decrease
Created by: 629943656