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Pharm Final

What is an antagonist? drug that brings out specific action by binding with appropriate receptor
What is an antagonist? drug that inhibits specific action by binding with particular receptor
What is extralabel use? use of drug that is not USDA approved
What is withdrawal time? length of time it takes for a drug to be eliminated from animal tissue
what are the 4 sources of drugs? plants, minerals, hormones, bacteria/mold
3 methods of selecting an appropriate drug for a patient? dx, symptomatic, empirical
4 parts of a regimen route of admin, dosage, frequency, duration
7 responsibilities of a vt with a regimen ask ? if orders unclear, observe pt after drug admin, correct route, correct time/freq, correct drug, check labels, check medical record, explain procedure to client and take home instructions
what is a steady state? point at which drug accumulation is equal to drug elimination
3 meds that can be inhaled bronchodilators, antibiotics, anesthesics
passive absorption drugs move from * to * high, low
active transport drugs move from * to * low, high
2 factors that increase absorption where given, hydration status of pt
drug has high lipid content, will or will not pass through cell wall? will
organ that metabolizes liver
organ that excretes most waste kidney
five parts of syringe needle, hub, barrel, plunger, dead area
insulin syringe measurement units
define microencapsulation drug form that stabilizes substances commonly considered unstable
5 rights of a technician right patient, right medication, right dose, right route, right time/rate of admin
Can cause nerve damage if given incorrectly IM
testing for tuberculosis ID
very rapid onset, shortest duration IV
onset and duration can be variable IP
injection into joint for local inflammation IA
no hyperosmotic solutions given this way SQ
for CPR or euthanasia IC
what is the master gland of the endocrine system? pituitary gland
what is negative feedback? high level of hormones and tells body to stop releasing said hormones
what is entropion and ectropion? when eyelids are inverted, requires sx
why do eyedrops have to be applied multiple times a day? tears wash away
yeast and bacteria like to grow in what kind of environment? warm, moist
what is the largest organ of the body? skin
what is pruritis? itchy skin
3 layers of skin from deepest to superficial hypodermis, dermis, epidermis
maintenance fluid formula 30ml/lb
what is the piece of equipment called to check the pressures in the eye? tonopen
what disease does that piece of equip. test for? glaucoma
when doing a tear test, what dz are you check for? KCS
how long do you have to leave strips in the eye? 60 seconds
Fluorescein stain is * on strip and looks * in eye orange, green
Fluorescein stain test for what? ulcerations on eye
3 functions of resp. tract voice production, body temp regulation, acid-base balance, oxygen and CO2 exchange
what are the receptors called where pain arises? nociceptors
superficial pain is located in the * tissue epidermis
deep oain is located in the * tissue bone, muscle
visceral pain is located * internally (intestinally)
define analgesic pain reliever, anesthetic
2 signs of inflammation redness, swollen
what are two jobs of a fever? fight off infection, keep body warm during sickness
what does NSAID stand for? nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs
what do turbinates do? humidify and warm air
which are larger, bronchi or bronchioles? bronchi
what is the job of the alveoli oxygen and CO2 exchange
what the mucus and cilia work together, what is their purpose? remove debris
what are antitussives meds to control cough
what is teh basic functional unit of the kidney? nephron
if kidney is damaged, how does it affect erythropoiesis? it cannot excrete erythropoietin to stimulate bone marrow into making more RBC's
what type of anemia results from inability to make erythropoietin? non-regenerative
how does uremia effect tissues of the body? makes them more sensitive to drugs
if a pt has kidney issues, what type of diet should they be fed? low sodium
three different inactive ingredients and what they do thickness - increase viscocity, emulsifiers - allow ingredients to mix and not seperate, sweeteners - enhance taste
vet-client-patient relationship relationship established during visits to clinic allowing trust w/ instructions of car and medication
over the counter drugs that do not need rx to be obtained
extralabel use use for drug that has not been approved by FDA
controlled substance substance that has high risk for addiction
oral medication has a * onset, but is * acting slow, longer
parenteral means injectable
parenteral medications have * onset, but are * acting quick, shorter
4 storage sites for drugs bone, fat, liver, kidney
what is therapeutic index? relationship to achieve desired effect and toxic level
name chosen by manufacturing comany: short Trade
name that descries molecular structure chemical
common name chosen by company generic
same as compendial or generic official
name given by research/development code/lab
name listed in US Pharmocopoeia Book compendial
4 things mandatory on drug label: manufacturers name and address, statas USDA controlled substance, instructions, adverse effects
what is multidose syringe used for? immunizations on cattle farm
transmits infor from place to place Neuron
transmits info away from the cell axon
transmits info to the cell dendrite
binds to a receptor neurotransmitter
gap/junction between nerve cells synapse
coats the fibers to transmit info faster myelin
2 parts of the CNS brain, spinal cord
what parts of the body does the PNS deal with? muscles, glands, tissues
somatic nervous system is * control, while the autonomic nervous system is * control of the body voluntary, involuntary
two parts of autonomic nervous system sympathetic and parasympathetic
carries sensory and motor impulses between spinal cord and brain medulla
learning, memory, interpretation of sensory input cerebrum
relay center for sensory impulses thalamus
mediator between nervous system and endocrin system via pituitary gland hypothalamus
stimulation of sympathetic nervous system causes heart rate, respiratory rate and glucose levels to * increase
stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system causes heart rate, resp rate and glucose levels to * decrease
drugs effect is equal to number of * and drugs * for the receptor receptors, specificity
constriction of arterioles, dilation of pupils Alpha 1
constriction of skeletal muscles Alpha 2
increased heart rate, conduction and contracility Beta 1
dilation of skeletal blood vessels Beta 2
dilation of coronary and mesenteric blood vessels Dopaminergic
what chemical are the alveoli covered in? surfactant
what is the job of alveoli? oxygen & CO2 exchange
what is the job of alveoli? oxygen & CO2 exchange
Inspiration is active, expiration is passive. True or false? True
3 goals of tx resp dz control secretions, control reflexes, keep air flowing to alveoli
aerolization of drugs is also known as: Nebulization
define nephrology study of kidneys
define nephron basic functioning unit of the kidney
define retroperitoneal lower dorsal or caudal dorsal
causes of renal damage heredity, cancer, injury
pumps blood into the heart Vena Cava
first chamer the blood reaches Right Atrium
another name for the mitral valve left atrioventricular valve
another name for the tricuspid valve right atrioventricular valve
second chamber that the blood goes in Right ventricle
takes blood to the third chamber Pulmonary vein
third chamber the blood goes in left atrium
last chamber the blood reaches left ventricle
takes blood into the lungs to be oxygenated pulmonary artery
takes oxygenated blood out of the heart and into the body aorta
first part of the small intestine duodenum
second part of the small intestine jejunum
third part of the small intestine ileum
starts the digestive process salivary glands
holds food stomach
tube the food travels down esophagus
in birds crop
forestomach Rumen
true stomach of the cow abomasum
extras that some animals have in their GI tracts outpocketings
define indirect acting hormones cause target organ to produce a second hormone, which in turn influences a second target organ or tissue
define negative feedback high levels of hormones that let the body know to decrease hormone release
4 stages of estrus proestrus, estrus, diestrus, anestrus
positive electrolytes are called cations, and negative electrolytes are called anions. True or false? True
particles that generate pressure effective osmoles
solutes that move from high to low concentration diffusion
the ability of a particle to attract water osmotic pressure
particles incapable of generating pressure ineffective osmoles
solutes that cannot move, so they attract water osmosis
2 examples of physical exam findings of a dehydrated patient tacky mm, delayed CRT
Internal pts of eye anterior chamber, iris, lens
External pts of eye eyelids, cornea, sclera, nictating membrane
4 stages of wound healing inflammation, debridement, repair, maturation
gram positive stain dark blue, purple
gram negative stain bright pink, red
what does MIC stand for? Minimum inhibitory concentration
3 things about eye medication drops must be reapplied through the day, thicker solutions applied less often, stain is orange on paper and green in eye
Created by: nlchandler87



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