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Functions of Hydrostatic Skeleton supports body form, provides resistance for the contraction of muscles to act against to allow mobility
Source of Hydrostatic Skeleton Some organisms use their fluid-filled gastrovascular cavity, others use their fluid filled coelom or pseudocoelom
Exoskeleton External Skeleton
Molluscs composed of calcium carbonate
Arthropods composed of chitin
Endoskeleton internal skeleton
Echinoderms and vertabrates mineralized bone and cartilage, endoskeleton
Benefits of endoskeletons does not limit space for internal organs, supports greater weight
Benefits of jointed endoskeletons can grow with the animal, supports the weight of a large animal, protects vital internal organs, is protected by outer tissues, allows flexible movements
Functions of the skeletal system supports the body, protects internal organs,provides sites for muscle attachment, permits movement, storage ions (bones store calcium and phosphate ions) produces blood cells (certain bones produce red blood cells)
osteoblasts "blastos" germ/seed, synthesize new bone matrix
osteoclasts "clasts" break, dissolve bone matrix
osteocytes "cyte" cell osteoblasts that become caught in the matrix, in lacunae, connected by canaliculi
canaliculi microscopic canals between ossified lacunae
cartilage structures act as models for future bones
calcium salts are deposited in matrix by cartilage cells and later by osteoblasts
osteoclasts break down bone, remove worn cells, deposit calcium in the blood, work with osteoblasts
osteoblasts work to heal broken bones
anatomy of a long bone medullary cavity in center bounded by compact bones at the sides, spongy bones at the ends
compact bone unit of structure called osteon, concentric lamellae arranged around a central canal, osteocytes lie in lacunae at lamellar boundaries
spongy bone numerous bars and plates separated by irregular spaces, spaces filled with red bone marrow
red bone marrow produces blood cells
myostatin mutation "double muscling" excessive growth of muscles
skeletal muscles attached to the skeleon by bands of fibrous connective tissue
tendons bands of fibrous connective tissue arranged in antagonistic pairs
skeletal muscles can only pull, cannot push
when one muscle contracts, it stretches its antagonistic partner
a muscle at rest exhibits tone (minimal contraction)
a muscle in ____________ is at maximum sustained contration tetany
sarcomere basic unit of muscle
sarcoplasm interior contents of a muscle cell, including glycosomes, myoglobin, and calcium
sarcolemma cellular membrane of a muscle cell, includes the plasma membrane and an outer coat made up of a polysaccharide/collagen matrix which connects to tendon fibers at the distal ends
muscles are collections of numerous multinucleated cells commonly called "fibers"
these cells have longitudinal bundles in their cytoplasm (sarcoplasm) called sarcomeres
sarcomeres contain the proteins actin (thin filament) and myosin (thick filament)
actin thin filament
myosin thick filament
actin molecules are bound to the __________ Z-line
z-line edge of sarcomere
myosin head can bind to both ATP and actin
actin filaments are found at both ends of sarcomere
actin filaments are attached to the z line and suspended to the other end in sarcoplasm
myosin filaments are suspended between z lines
when a muscle fiber contracts, actin filaments _________________ __________ the myosin filaments and approach one another slide past
when a muscle fiber contracts, the z lines ____________________, sarcomeres ____________, and the filaments _______________ _______ _________ length move toward each other, shorten, remain the same length
working muscles require ________ ATP
myosin filaments break down _____ and form crossbridges that pull ________ filaments toward the center of the ____________ ATP, actin, sarcomere
sustained exercise require ____________ __________________ to regenerate ATP cellular respiration
nueromuscular junction is the synaptic contact between a nerve fiber and a muscle fiber
nerve impulses cause a neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) to be released and cross the synaptic cleft
acetylcholine a nuerotransmitter, signals the muscle fiber to contract
Role of Calcium in muscle contraction calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, then binds with troponin
troponin regulates the position of tropomyosin
tropomyosin can block myosin binding sites on actin filaments
Created by: 629943656