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Define anemia Decreased O2 caring capacity
What is the most accurate way to classify anemia? Bone marrow response
Causes of Low MCV *Iron deficiency #1 cause *congenital (akita's /shiba Inus)
Cause of high MCV *#1 cause Immature cells(Regenerative anemia) *congenital (poodles/min schn) *FELV (With or w/out anemia)
Causes of Low MCHC *#1 cause iron dificiency (hypochromasia) *Immature cellss ( regenerative anemia)
Causes of High MCHC * ARTIFACT!! -Hemolysis, lipemia, heinz bodies
___ anemia will cause decreased Hb concentration in the blood Regenerative
Define: Regenerative anemia Losing blood abnormally.
Def: Non Regenerative anemia Not producing new blood cells (Decrease/loss of production of erythropoietin bone marrow disorder)
Regenerative anemia must be verified by? absolute reticulocyte count
Regenerative anemia classifications *blood loss *chronic hemorrhage,
#1 cause of regenerative anemia Blood loss
Causes of regenerative anemia *Blood loss *Chronic hemorrhage *hemolysis *blood parasites *Heinz bodies *microorganisms *Hemolysis *RBC defects *metabolic disorders
Causes of Chronic hemorrhage *Parasites *GI ulcers/neoplasia *IBD *Overuse of bld donor/research anemia
Types of anemia Regenerative and non regenerative
What is IMHA and key points to remember? Immune mediated hemoyitic anemia: Remember: *Agglutination/spherocytes *coombs test
Blood parasite, Intra and extracellular Intra: *Babesia *erlichia Extra: *Haemobartonella canis *Haemobartonella felis
Heinz bodies are formed from pieces of _____ and are destroyed through the spleen by what process? Denatures hemoglobin *extracellular hemolysis
What spp are Heinz boby common in and what can cause Heinz bodies? *Noramal in felines (5% or less) *onion, garlic or tylenol toxicity
Define: Metabolic disorders Anything that can interfere with Hb synthesis or metobolic processes of RBC's
MCV Descriptions: *Microcytic *Macrocytic *normocytic
MCHC Descriptions: Normochromic * Artifact if hyperchromic *hypochromic
Microorganisms that can cause regenerative anemia *Clostridium spp(cattle, dogs) *Leptospira spp(farm animals)
Medical name for Fading kitten syndrome? Neonatal Isoerythrolysis (forms antigen antibody complex)
Process of cross matching: 1. Centrifuge donor and recipients blood 2. Mix cells from donor tube and serum from recipients tube on slide to check for aglutination. 3. Repeat the process vice versa and check again for agglutination
Main cause of high MCV? Regenerative anemia
Number one cause of low MCV and MCHC ? *Iron deficiency
What animal is H20 intoxication most common in? Calves
Excessive IV fluids can cause _____ to occur in plasma Hypoosmoality
Drugs/chemicals that can cause heinz bodies *Benzocaine * propylene glycol *propofol
2 main causes of non-regenerative anemia *bone marrow dysfunction *reduced/defective erythropoiesis
_____ are chemicals released by inflammatory cells cytokines
causes of non regenerative anemia *Reduced Erythropoeisis *Renal dz *Damage to bone marrow *damage to bone marrow *Infectious agents *Immune mediated *idiopathic aplastic anemia *Myloprliferative disorder *congenital
Damage to bone marrow can cause? Pancytopenia ( decrease in all cells)
2 common dz that cause non regenerative anemia FELV and Parvo
overproduction of one type of cell in the bone marrow is know as? Myloproliferative disorder
True or false: Anemia can start as regenerative and then progress to non regenerative True
Lead toxicity is also known as _____ and typically has what cells associated with it? *Plumbism * basophilic stippling nucleated rbc
3 things that ccan cause intravascular hemolysis *envenomation *parasites *bacteria
3 things that can cause extracellular hemolysis *IMHA *DIC *Erythroparasites
A gradual onset of anemia suggests what type? Non Regenerative
A sudden onset suggest what type of anemia? Regenerative
Bright red blood is known as ___ and is usually from the ___ GI tract *Frank *lower (regenerative)
dark tary blood is known as ___ and is usually from the ___ GI tract *Melena * Upper GI (Chronic regenerative)
Cells seen with regenerative anemia Anisocytosis/polychromasia
Cells seen with non-regenerative anemia Normocytic/ normochromic
Cells seen with Iron deficiency Microcytic/ hypochromasia : schistocytes / keratocytes
Toxic chemical exposures that cause anemia *Plants(Reg) *Lead(non-reg) *rodenticides(Reg)
Pale + icteric MM indicate _____ hemolysis
Cynotic MM indicate hypoxia
Pinpoint hemorrhage on MM indicate patechia
Lrg red hemorrhages on MM indicate Echimosis
To access anemia you need to preform A ___ or a ____ for non definitive cases *CBC *bone marrow aspirate
Bone marrow response is evaluated by detecting immature erythrocytes (presence of RNA)
What are the two types of reticulocytes cats have? Aggregate and punctate
Reticulocytes can be counted manually by using what stain? New methylene blue
Created by: brit_2112



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