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Veggie Production 3

QuestionAnswer
Eggplant origin eggplant is semitropical, TROPICAL plan originating in Asia and INDIA
Eggplant climate -eggplant is a WARM SEASON crop that requires 65-85 days to reach market maturity from transplanting -temperatures: daytime- 80-90 F, night- 70-80 F -the eggplant is more susceptible to injury by low temperatures than tomatoes and peppers!!!!
Eggplant Soil - well drained sandy loam, loam, or clay loam soils with a pH of 6.0-6.5 are BEST! -To avoid potential soil-borne illnesses, plant eggplants in soils that have not produced a crop of another solanaceae crop in the past 2-3 years
Eggplant Planting -soil temps should be between 75-90 F at transplant -spacing: 2 by 4 feet -june-july, no earlier than june!
Eggplant good organic, indeterminate
Eggplant Harvest - Gets corky or big if wait too long to harvest! -should be harvested at least 5-6 times at 7-10 day intervals or in better terms: 3 TIMES A WEEK/EVERY 2 DAYS!!
Phomopsis Blight: affects eggplants. concentric rings, splashing water spreads it, use mulch to help and cover sprays
Phytophthora Blight: affects eggplants. HOT, WET weather kills plant, use cover sprays and plastic mulch helps or pine straw and leaves
Southern Blight: white mold, control with rotation and soil solarization
Colorado Potato Beetle: (eggplant) are foliage feeders, control with insecticides including BT are highly effective against CPB larvae
Flea Beetle: larvae feed on plant roots, adult beetles feed on FOLIAGE, control: Insecticides
Eggplant storage -remove eggplants immediately after harvest (lose water) they can be stored at 54 F at 90-95 % humidity for up to a week -When you pick them there are THORNS so beware!! 2-3 plants in garden are PLENTY!
Fabaceae - Legume or Peas -beans an peas (soybeans and peanuts) -perfect flowers: self-pollinate- bees are not required, cross pollination occurs from bees!
Cow Peas Origin -originated in INDIA moved to Africa and then to America -common names: blackeyed peas, crowwders, filed peas, cowpeas or just peas
Cow Peas -fix nitrogen: rhizobium -nutrition: high in PROTEIN, energy, and fiber -GREEN MANURE- crop
Cow Pea Types o Cream: small pods/peas “white acre” –lady fingers o Crowder: “Mississippi Silver” “Mississippi Purple” o Blackeye: “Magnolia”
Cow Pea Planting Dates Spring (May 1) Fall crop (July 15) and 55-65 days to mature
Cow Pea Seeding Rates direct-seed, 4-6 seeds ***(4 inch by 3 ft) that are 1 inch deep
Cow Pea Harvesting -“mature green stage” when pods completely filled-out, but not yet beginning to dry→ ROUND v. flat -last 3-5 weeks→pick twice a week after that, DON’T LET THEM DRY ON THE VINE VERY BAD!
Cow Pea Weed Control must control weeds it is a big problem, GRASS CONTROL is the #1 problem- just know that HERBICIDE, MOW, MULCH, CULTIVATE is what fixes weeds!
Cowpea Curculio #1 problem for peas .•Adults lay eggs within peas •Look for “warty” blister on pods •Overwinter (OW) as adults •“Wormy peas” control at bloom start insecticide sprays
Thrips cause “mouse ear” normally no control, early spring the leaves will curl
aphids (peas) normally will CRASH but transmits diseases/viruses, normally don’t spray
Stink Bugs (peas) feed on buds, blossoms, seed-pods control: difficult, especially BROWN stinkbugs, spray with insecticides or grow a TRAP CROP—to distract!
Pea Storage peas easily “heat” and spoil- forced air to cool to 45 F
Lima Bean Origin 7,000 year old lima bean found in Peru
2 types of Lima Beans Climbing (pole limas): easier to pick but have to build a trellis bush types: taste better, but harder to pick
Lima Beans (poisonus?) wild types have high levels of cyanide (cyanogenic glucoside). cultivated varieties have this in lower amounts but do not eat them raw
Lima bean nutrition high in protein, energy, and fiber
Lima Bean: Days to Harvest 1. Bush: 60-70 days 2. Pole: 90 dayes
butterpea cross between a blackeye pea and a butterbean
Lima Bean Planting Dates -April 15 (July 15) - plant pretty deep - water 1/2 inch twice per week
Lima Bean Weed Control -cultivate: shallow, several times -pre-emergent herbicide - mulch - post emergent herbicides
Lima bean disease very susceptible to nematode damage
nematode microscopic worms that get into the roots of plants. Solarize and kill them
stem anthracnose major disease of LIMA BEANS> can infect all above ground parts. Entire plant can be killed. The plant will get spots on the foliage and the fruit
Damping off shore shin
Mexican Bean Beetle adult looks like a big lady but. Chew on the underside of the leaves but do not eat the fruit. No need to use pesticide
Lima Bean Harvest when the pods are filled. Remove to a cool and shaded area
Cucurbitaceae the gourd family. tropical in origin. W
Cucurbitaceae flowers most are monoecious, have male and female flowers on the same plant but in a different location. Must have pollination from bees
Watermelon origin unknown. was known to the egyptians before 2000 BC, some thing it was domesticated in Africa
wild watermelons David Livingston reported seeing them in large fields in Africa
Jubilee Watermelons large oblong with dark green striped with light green in between (25-35lbs)
Charleston Grey light green, no stripes, oblong (25-35lbs)
Crimson Sweet round with dark green and light green striped rind (20-30lbs)
All Sweet small oblong with dark green rind with a light yellow strip (15-25lbs)
Icebox small round (<10lbs) bred to be small to fit in the refrigerator. seedless
triploid watermelon seedless. developed by creating watermelons with double the usual number of chromosomes and then crossing them with a normal watermelon. Seedless watermelon has 1.5 that amount of normal chromosomes (will not form a viable seed)
watermelon mosaic virus aphid transmitted. control using resistant varieties and control aphids. can also use reflective mulching
Cucumber beetles Do not vector bacterial wilt to watermelons, but cause heavy foliage damage and must be controlled.
Wireworms and whitefringed beetle larvae both feed on the roots. Plant may grow a little then wilt and die. No easy control for a home gardener
aphids vector viruses
cutworms feed on young seedlings or developing melons. active only at night
pickleworm (watermelon) like watermelon the least. Extremely lat plantings are subject to attack.
When to harvest Watermelon 1. tendril next to the melon dries out 2. belly turns yellow 3. thumping- if you thump it and it has a ping sound it is not ready. If it makes a dull sound like it is hollow it is ready
cucurbita pepto summer squash. originated in mexic
Types of Summer Squash crook neck, straight neck, zucchini, scallop.
Summer Squash Planting direct seed, plant April 15th
Bush Type Squash straight neck, and crook neck
Vining Type Squash winter squash (butternut). needs more space
Spraying Squash squash are monoecious, so if you have to spray, spray it late in the day so you don't kill bees you need for pollination. (Dusk or dark is best)
Squash Diseases viruses #1 problem in squash. aphid transmitted viruses.
Stylet oil an organic way to control aphids. cleans aphid mouthparts
Squash Fungal diseases not much of a problem, no cover spray required
pickleworm (squash) prefer squash. arrive early to mid june
scout look for worms in blooms. spray every 5-7 days until under control
squash vine borer feed mainly on squash sometimes on melons and cucumbers. Frass may extrude from stems. Very damaging to squash. Eggs laid in late May/early June. Can kill your plants. The later you go in the summer the worse they get
squash vine borer control inject BT solution into stem. But it is best to spray during the egg lay (early June and early August)
Squash Bugs feed on cucurbits. Appear early in spring. Secretes a highly toxic saliva and the whole plant will wilt. Can kill your entire plant
Cucumber Beetles vector bacterial wilt, which can kill the whole plant. They get a bacterium in their guy and vector it through feces.
Harvesting Squash harvest every other day or 3 times a week. The bigger they are the worse they taste. Will get a glossy appearance.
cultivation shallow tillage, primary tillage
mulching best way for most gardeners (dry leaves, pinestraw)
sweep goes in the soil about an inch and clips the top off the weeds between rows
pesticides a chemical that kills, prevents, or controls a pest. Even clorox and lysol are considered pesticides because they claim to kill bacteria
pre-emergent herbicides the best control method. control weeds as they germinate. great on annual grasses
Before controlling a pest -you need to identify it first - it may not be a pest, may be a beneficial - Select the best control
IPM integrated pest management. a single plan with a combination of tactics, using natural and applied controls.
sanitation involved cleaning up. Great way to prevent pests. Eliminate spills, wood piles, garbage, and dead plants
Pesticide label is the the law! misuse of a pesticide can result in fines and/or jailtime.
rubber gloves wearing rubber gloves will reduce your risk of exposure to pesticides by 99%. because we use our hands to much
Minimum body protection when using pesticides long pants, long sleeves, closed shoes and socks.
fabaceae legumes. beans and peas, including soybeans and peanuts
inoculate seed 1st time planting peas you need to add bacteria. Go to the co-op and buy Rhizobium (should be refrigerated). Add to seed, mix with coke
Created by: asculpepper