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A&P 1-6/7

Vet 1200- 1st/2nd/3rd Lectures

what are the 3 types of muscles cardiac, smooth, and skeletal
the most stable attachment of muscle the origin of muscle
the site of most muscle movement insertion
what ion is released from the SCR by a nerve impulse, starts the contraction process Ca++
what are the 3 phases of muscle contraction latent phase, contracting phase, relaxtion phase
how long does latent phase last 0.01 seconds
how long does contracting phase last 0.04 seconds
how long does relaxation phase last 0.05 seconds
the fiber like shape of cells muscle fiber
most of the volume of muscle fiber that is made up of small strands muscle myofibril
actin and myosin that make up myofibril muscle protein filament
stores O2 and attaches to a large protein and brings O2 to body tissues myoglobin
the firm end to end attachments between cardiac cells that transmit impulses allowing cardiac muscles to contract intercalated discs
what is the pacemaker of the heart the sinoatrial node (SA node)
increases HR, increases force of muscle contractions, causes vasodilation sympathetic nervous system
reduces HR, reduces vasodilation parasympathetic nervous system
found in the soft internal organs visceral smooth muscle
found where small delicate contractions are needed multiunit smooth muscle
attachment sites for actin and myosin in smooth muscle cells a sarcomere
decreases smooth muscle motility, secretions, and blood flow sympathetic
increases smooth muscle motility, secretions, and blood flow parasympathetic
moves bones, multiple nuclei, striated, long thin cells, nerves necessicary for function, voluntary control skeletal muscle
pumps blood, single nuclei, striated, branched cells, modifies activity, involuntary cardiac muscle
produces movement in internal organs, single nuclei, no striations, modifies activity, spindle cells, multi unit, invountary smooth muscle
consists of 37-38 seperate bones skull
jagged immovable joints of the skull sutures
only moveable bone of the skull mandible(lower jaw)
large hole where medulla oblongata and ateries enter the cranium foramen magnum
one on each side of foramen magnum; join with atlas occipital condyles(2)
form dorsolaterla walls of the cranium parietal bones (2)
on dorsal midline between the occipital/parietal bones; cats and horses only have interparietal bones (2)
form the forhead, part of the orbit frontal bones (2)
form the lateral walls of the cranium temporal bones (2)
plate through which branches of the olfactory nerve pass through ethmoid bone
forms the ventral part of the cranium sphenoid bone
proptosis pop out
aptosis cell death
three bones of the ear malleus, incus, stapes
house the upper incisors incisive bones (2)
form the bridges of the nose Nasal bones (2)
make up most of the upper jaw; forms the hard palate maxillary bones (2)
form part of the orbit lacrimal bones (2)
front side of temporal bone forms part of the orbit zygomtic bones (2)
four thin scroll like bones that act as humidifiers turbinates (4)
composes cadual portion of the hard palate palatine bones (2)
support part of the lateral walls of the throat pterygoid bones (2)
c7, t13, L7, s3, c6-23 dog vertebral formula
c7, t13, L7, s3, c 20-23 cat vertebral formula
c7, t18, L6, s5, c15-20 horse vertebral formula
forms the floor of the thorax sternum
closes the jaw masseter muscle
exten the head and neck trapezius and splenius muscles
extends the head and neck and pulls the front leg forward brachiocephalicus muscle
flexes the head and neck sternocephalicus muscle
supports the abdominal organs/ flexes vertebral column external abdominal oblique muscle
helps flex the back internal abdominal oblique muscle
participate in various functions that involve straining transversus abdominus muscle
play a role in respiration rectus abdominal muscle
flexes the shoulder latissimus dorsi muscle
adduct the front legs pectoral muscles(deep and superficial)
abducts and flexes the shoulder joint deltoid muscle
flexes the elbow joint biceps brachii
extends the elbow joint triceps brachii
extends the carpus extensor carpi radialis muscle
flexes the digit deep digital flexor muscle
extensor muscle of the hip gluteal muscle
main extensor muscle of the stifle joint quadriceps femoris muscle
hamstring group of muscles biceps femoris, senitendinous, semimembranosus muscles
raises the floor of the mouth mylohyoideus
opens the mouth digastric
the first cervical vertebra that holds up the head atlas
the second cervical vertebra axis
have tall spinous processes and lateral articualr facets that form the joints with the ribs thoracic vertebrae
have large bulky bodies lumbar vertebrae
fuse together to form a solid structure sacral vertebrae
most caudal bones of the tail; number varies widely coccygeal vertebrae
the distal seasemoid bone is termed navicular bone
articular joint surfaces are bone to bone
speherical articular surface on the proximal end of a long bone head
flat articular surface of a bone facet
projections off a bone surface processes
large round articular surface condyle
depressed area on the surface of a bone fossa
hole in a bone that may contain blood vessels and nerves foramen
flat triangular bone of the shoulder scapula
prominent longitudinal ridge on the lateral surgace of the scapula spine of the scapula
shallow concave surface forming the socket of the shoulder joint glenoid cavity
collar bone clavicle
long bone of the upper arm humerus
another term for the upper arm brachium
located on the proximal end of the humerus; considered the ball of the shoulder joint head of the humerus
this allows a pulley like movement of the elbow humeral condyle
first bone of the forearm; main weight bearing bone radius
another term for forearm antebrachium
second bone of the forearm; long and thin servies mainly for muscle attachment and formation of the elbow joint ulna
large process on proximal ulna that forms the point of the elbow olecranon process
the two rows of short bones arranged parallel to each other located in the distal forelimb carplal bones
horse carpus is termed the knee
human carpus is termed the wrist
pigs and horses have ___ carpal bones 8
cats and dogs have ___ carpal bones 7
ruminants are missing the ____ carpal bone and the ___ and ___ are fused first; second and third
extend from the distal row of carpal bones to the proximal phalanges metacarpal bones
there are 5 metacarpal bones that are labeled I-V from ____ to ____ medial; lateral
each digit is made up of two or three bones called phalanges
hard outter coverings of the distal digits claws
horses have ____ digits one
evolutionary remnants of digits dewclaws
in the dog the dewclaw is the ___ digit first
in the cow, pig, and sheep the medical and lateral dewclaws are the ___ and ____ digits second and fifth
one large metacarpal bone that supports the weight of the horse cannon bone
two smaller vestigial metacarpal bones that are situated behind the cannon bones splint bones
metacarpals II and IV are termed ___ in the horse splint bones
metacarpal III is termed ___ in the horse cannon bone
joint of the metacarpal and proximal phalanx fetlock joint
joint of the proximal and middle phalanx pastern joint
joint of the distal and middle phalanx coffin joint
a bone embedded within a tendon and found in locations where a tendon passes over a joint sesamoid bone
six total bones that are fused together form the pelvis
two halves of the pelvis joined ventrally by cartilagenous joint called the pelvic symphysis
forward-most bone of the pelvis that you put your hands on llium
caudal-most bone on the pelvis that you sit on ischium
smallest pelvic bone, located medially pubis
socket for the head of the femur "hip joint" acetabulum
two large holes located on either side of the pelvis where sciatic nerve runs through obturator foramen
long bone of the thigh femur
proximal end of the femoral head forms the hip joint
large processes of the femur trochaters
distal end of the femur forms stifle joint
smooth articular groove in which the patella rides trochlea
largest sesamoid bone in the body patella
two small sesamoid bones located in the proximal gastroc muscle fabellae
main weight bearing bone of the lower leg tibia
triangular proximal end of tibia with apex of trial facing forward tibial tuberosity
distal end of tibia; medial aspect medial mallelos
distal end of tibia "knob" on medial aspect ankle
runs along the length of tibia but does not support weight fibula
distal end of fibula; lateral aspect lateral mallelous
lateral "knob" of fibula ankle
two rows of short bones located in the pelvic limb tarsal bones
first row of tarsal bones have these names tibial tarsal, centarl tarsal, fibular tarsal
second row of tarsal bones are___ numbered
fibular tarsal bone has the calcaneal tuberosity
projects upward and backward to form the point of the hock calcaneus
calcaneus is the insertion point for the achilles tendon
almost exactly the same as the metacarpal bones but are located in the pelvic limb metatarsal bones
dogs/cats usuall have ___ digits in the hind paws 4
viseral bone in the penis of a dog os penis
viseral bone that supports the valves of the heart in sheep and cattle os cordis
viseral bone the gives more strength in the snout in swine os rostri
junctions between bones that can be immovable, slightly movable, or freely moveable joints
the study of joints arthrology
there are ___ general types of joints 3
immovable joints that are firmly united by fibrous tissue synarthroses/fibrous
slightly moveable joints that are capable of only a slight rocking movement amphiarthroses/cartliagenous
freely moveable joints and considered the true joint synovial/diarthroses
smooth surfaces of bones where they rub together in a joint articular surfaces
thin layer of hyaline cartilar that covers the articular surface articular cartilage
fluid filled space between joint surfaces joint cavity
surrounds joint cavity and has two layers joint capsule
outer layer of joint capsule fibrous tissue
inner layer lining the joint capsule synovial membrane
attach muscle to bone tendons
attach bone to bone ligaments
decreases the angle between two bones flexion
increases angle between two bones extension
movement of extremity toward medial plane of the body adduction
movement of extremtiy away from median plane of the body abduction
twisting movement of a part on its axis rotation
movement of extremity so that the distal end moves in a circle circumduction
one joint surface swivels around another; ony flexion and extension are possible hinge joints
rocking motion of one bone on the other; flexion/extension possible with some adduction/abduction gliding joints
one bone pivots on another; rotaion is the only movement possible pivot joints
allow most extensive movement; all synovial joint movements possible ball and socket joint
supports the trunk and depresses the scapula serratus ventralis
flexes the elbow and extends the shoulder biceps brachii
flexes the elbow brachialis
extends the elbow and flexes the shoulder triceps brachii
extends the shoulder supraspinatus
flexes the shoulder/abducts the limb infraspinatus
adducts the limb/rotates forearm subscapularis
extends hip/flexes stifle/ extends tarsus biceps femoris
flexes hip/extends stifle/ sartorius
adducts limb/flexes stifle/extends hip and hock gracilis
adducts limbs pectineus
extends the hip semimembranosus
extends hip/flexes stifle/ extends tarsus semitendinosus
extends stifle/flexes hip quadriceps femoris
the most cranial had of the quadriceps femoris rectus femoris
muscle lateral to the rectus femoris vastus lateralis
muscle medial to the rectuss femoris vastus medialis
muscle caudal to the rectus femoris vastus intermedius
diaphram and external intercostal muscles inspiratory muscles
internal intercostal muscles and abdominal muscles expiratory muscles
hardest substance in the body bone
capable of repairing itself after injury bone
made up of collagen fibers embedded in a protein and polysaccharides matrix
functions of bone support, protection, leverage, storage, blood cell formation
light, spongy, extremely strong type of bone cancellous bone
dense, heavy, composed of the haversian system, found in the shafts of long bones compact bone
concentric layers of ossified bone matrix arranged around a central canal haversian canal
blood, lymph vessels, and nerves supply these osteocytes
bone-cell or bone-capsule termed an osteocyte lacuna
a star shaped cell that is most abundant cell found in compact bone osteocyte
mature bone cell osteocyte
canals in the haversian canal canaliculi
never contains more than one osteocyte lacuna
membrane that covers the outer surface of bones periosteum
membrane that lines the hollow interior surface of bones, also contains osteoblasts endosteum
immature bone cells that produce bone to harden the matrix osteoblasts
bone cells that are surrounded by bone, considered mature bone cell osteocytes
remodel/remove bone, allow body to withdraw calcium from the bone when levels are low in the body osteoclasts
channels through bone matrix that contain blood vessels volkmann canals
enter at right angles into the periosteum volklmann canals
canals that are vertical in bone tissue central/haversian canals
canals that are perpendicular in bone tissue volkmann canals
grows into and replaces cartilage endochondral bone formation
develops from fibrous tissue membranes intramembranous bone formation
primary growth center of endochondral bone formation diaphysis
secondary growth center of endochondral bone formation epiphysis
shaft of the cartilage rod diaphysis
ends of the cartilage rods epiphysis
occurs in certain skull bones, creates the flat bones intramembranous bone formation
longer than wide lone bones
majority of our bones long bones
proximal and distal epiphysis long bones
shaped like small cubes short bones
spongy bone covered by compact bone short bones
thin and flat flat bones
cancellous bones sandwiched between two compact bones flat bones
skull, scapulae, and pelvis flat bones
femur long bone
carpal and tarsal bones short bones
vertebrae, sesamoid, patella irregualr bones
majority of bone marrow of young animals, forms blood cells red bone marrow
consists of adipose connective tissue, most common in adult animals yellow bone marrow
smooth areas of compact bone that come in contact with each other articular surfaces
large round articular surfaces condyle
spherical articular surface on the proximal end of a long bone head
flat articular surface of a bone facet
projections off a bone surface processes
hole in a bone that may contain blood vessels and nerves foramen
depressed area on the surface of a bone fossa
bones of the head and trunk that are located on the central axis of the body axial skeleton
bones of the limbs appendicular skeleton
bones formed in the viscera visceral skeleton
voluntary, striated, muscles skeletal muscles
involuntary, striated, found in the heart cardiac muscles
involuntary, unstriated, blood vessels and organs smooth muscle
fibrous connective tissue bands that connect muscle to bone tendons
connective tissue that surrounds many bundles of muscles fascia
attach by broad sheets of fibrous connective tissue aponeuroses
most prominent aponeurosis, common site of surgical entry into the abdomen linea alba
proximal attachment that is the more stable site of muscle attachment origin
distal attachment that undergoes most of the movement when a muscle contracts insertion
when stimulated by a nerve impulse, a muscle contracts or shortens action
drugs that bind to receptors and produce stimulatory responses agonists
drugs that prevent agonists from binding to receptors antagonists
a muscle or muscle group that directly produces a desired movement prime mover(agonist)
a muscle or muscle group that directly opposes the action of a prime mover antagonist
a muscle that contracts at the same time as a prime mover and assist in carrying out the action synergist
muscles that stabilize joints fixator
origin and insertion sites sometimes used to name muscles attachment sites
very large, multinucleated, composed of actin and myosin, multiple mitochondria skeletal muscle
thin actin filaments t bands
thick myosin filaments a bands
basic contracting unit of skeletal muscle sacromere
sites where the ends of motor nerve fibers connect to muscle fibers neuromuscular junction
ending of the axon presynaptic terminal
muscle cell postsynaptic terminal
small space between the end of nerve and muscle fibers synaptic space
tiny sacs within the end of a nerve fiber synaptic vesicle
sacroplasmic reticulim stores what kind of ions calcium ions
individual muscle fiber either contracts completely or not at all all or nothing principle
energy source for muscle contraction ATP
molecule that causes the addition of a P group onto ADP to make ATP creatine phosphate
glucose is stored in muscle fibers in the form of glycogen
o2 is stored in muscle fibers attached to a protein called myoglobin
as long as o2 supply is adequate for energy needs ____ takes place aerobic metabolism
if need for o2 is greateer than what is avaliable for energy needs ____ takes place anaerobic metabolism
anaerobic metabolism will result in the production of______ causing muscle soreness lactic acid
if heat production exceeds body needs____ will eliminate excess heat panting
if heat production is less than what the body needs_____ will increase production shivering
large sheets of cells in the walls of some hollow organs visceral smooth muscle
small discrete groups of cells multiunit smooth muscle
small, spidle shaped cells, singel nucleus, actin and myosin filaments smooth muscle cells
found in stomach, intestins, urinary bladder... contracts in large rythmic waves, parasympathetic stimulation increases activity, synpathetic stimulation decreases activity visceral smooth muscle
individual smooth muscle cells, or small groups of cells, found where delicate contractions are needed... iris, contration requires autonomic nervous system impulse multiunit smooth muscle
small cells, single nucleus, contact without external stimulation, contrations are rapid and wave like cardiac muscle
attachments between cardiac cells intercalated disks
generates the impulse that starts each heartbeat, located in the right atrium sinoatrial node
stimulate the heart to beat harder and faster as part of a "fight or flight" response sympathetic fibers
inhibit cardiac function causing the heart to beat more slowly and with less force parasympathetic fibers
formed externally by the sternocephalic and brachiocephalic muscles jugular groove
contains the jugular vein and carotid artery jugular groove
sheet of fbrous connective tissue fascia
the muscle of mastication masseter
striated muscles are located in the heart and skeletal muscle
these muscle cells have single nuclei smooth and cardiac
the large muscle group of caudal aspect of the canine lower hind limb gastroncnemius
the triceps brachii group has ___ heads 3
deltoid muscles allow fine movements of the shoulder
the muscle that lies along the outer thorax and looks like a fan of fingers or jagged saw edge serratus ventralis
prolonged inactivity of use will cause a decrease in muscle size atrophy
function of the muscle of the quadriceps femoris extension of the stifle
the neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates are considered to be a motor unit
this muscle raises the hackles on a dogs back arrector pili
muscle fibers are held together by connective tissue and enclosed in a sheet of fibrous membrane aponeurosis
a muscle whose movement increases the angle between two bones extensor
extensive aponeurosis that covers the lower back to join the superficial muscles in that area lumbodorsal fascia
the gluteal muscle group includes the gluteus medius and maximus and the tensor fascia lata
muscle that is found in the midventral abdominal area on either side of the linea alba extending from the pubis to the sternum rectus abdominis
this muscle can be observed from the medical surface of the thigh gracilis
chief action of the quadriceps femoris group extend the stifle
action of a muscle that moves an extremity toward the midline adduction
this muscle is the main extensor of the elbow triceps brachium
chief action of the biceps brachium flexion of the elbow
muscles that attach to skin and are responsible for its movement cutaneous muscles
triangular and flat muscle originates along the dorsal midline and inserts mainly on the spine of the scapula trapezius
this muscle is the main adductor of the shoulder pectoralis
the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus are the____ group hamstring
Created by: chop



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