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chap 6,7,8,15 & 20

Bio 1100- e3

QuestionAnswer
what is the ultimate source of energy the sun
the meaning of stored energy potential energy
the meaning of energy in motion kinetic energy
the study of energy thermodynamics
energy is never created of destroyed only transfered 1st law of thermodynamics
energy transfer will always result in a greater amount of disorder in the universe 2nd law of thermodynamics
in every energy transaction: some energy will be lost to the most disordered form of energy, heat
measure of the amount of disorder entropy
the greater the ____; the greater the _____ entropy; disorder
can store or release energy ATP
NTP nucleoside tri-phosphastes
ATP triphosphaste
ADP diphosphate
AMP monophosphate
____ & _____ can be interconverted ADP; ATP
external cellular respiration bc of o2 is from the lungs
internal cellular respiration bc of o2 is in the cell
reactions in which the products of the reaction contains more energy than the reactants; making energy endergonic (uphill)
reactions in which the reactants contain more energy than the products; breaking down energy exergonic (downhill)
enzyme properties 1. Proteins 2. Catalysts 3. Not destroyed in the process 4. Enzyme + Substrate= product 5. ASE= prefix of all enzymes
lactose> glucose> + galactose lactase
Sucrose> glucose + fructose Sucrase
nucleotides > RNA RNA polymerase
nucleotides > DNA DNA polymerase
series of enzyme reactions is termed a metabolic pathway
sum of all chemical reactions metabolism
where the substrate binds to an enzyme active site
vitamins that act as acessory molecules coenzyems
reduction in the activity of an enzyme by means of a compound competitive inhibition
molecule binds with the enzyme at a site other than the active site allosteric regulation
chymotrypsin digestive enzyme produced in the human pancreas
gather energy from sunlight photosynthetic orgamisms
gather energy from their food animals
energy removed from glucose during its breakdown is used to make ATP
loss of electrons oxidation
gain of electrons reduction
most important carrier between one part of the energy harvesting process and another electron carrier nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)
through redox reaction NAD picks up one hydrogen atom and another single electron from food to make NADH
empty; oxidized; low energy form of electron carrier NAD
loaded with electrons; reduced; high energy NADH
harvesting of energy from food cellular respiration
glycolysis 1. 1st step of carb metabolism 2. happens in the cytosol 3. 2 pyruvate molecules 4. 2 net ATP 5. 2 NADH produced
produces 32 ATP oxidative phosphoiliation; electron transport chain
acetyl COA allows carbs, protiens, and lipids to pass through
2 pyruvate molecules combined with coenzyme A and formed in the mitochondria create 2 acetyl CoA molecules
takes place in the mitochondria; begins with 2 acetyl CoA; remnants of glucose are fully oxidized to form CO2 Krebs cycle
from 2 acetyl CoA the following are produced 6 NADH & 2 FADH
ADP > ATP= ATP synthase
step 1 of electron transport chain NAD carry the charge
step 2 of electron transport chain 2H + 1/2 02= H2O (formation of water by oxidation)
step 3 of electron transport chain ATP synthase
in fermentation _____ is the only energy yielding process glycolysis
fermentation makes ____ ATP 2
glycolysis produces ____ & _____ ATP; NADH
partial degradation of sugars that occurs with out O2 fermentation
consumes organic molescules and O2 and yields ATP Aerobic respiration
similar to aerobic respiration but consumes compounds other than O2 anaerobic respiration
the site of photosynthesis in plants and algae chloroplasts
light reactions and calvin cycle are the components of photosynthesis
occurs in the stroma of chloroplasts calvin cycle
the product of photosynthesis G3P= sugar
_____ is converted into sugars, starches, and proteins G3P
the process by which yeast produce alcohol as a bi-product of glycolysis alcoholic fermentation
when pyruvic acid is turned into lactic acid lactic fermentation
the energy recquired to initiate a chemical reaction activation energy
pores in a plant cell that let carbon dioxide pass through stomata
network of chloroplasts membranes thylakoids
liquid material of the chloraplasts stroma
pigmentation of thylakoid membranes chlorophyll
collects solar energy and transforms it into chemical energy during photosynthesis photosystem
the molecules and associated compounds that first recieve the solar energy then transform it into chemical energy reaction center
the steps in the first stages of photosynthesis light reactions
the process of gas being incorporated into an organic molecule fixation
contains genetic material such as DNA or RNA never both; covered by protein coat= capsid; some have envelope some do not properties of a virus
father of microbiology louis pasteur
most important decomposers of the natural world bacteria and fungi
father of modern taxonomy carlous linnaeus
nomenclature that starts with a capital letter genus
species that starts with a lower case letter species
three domains of life: bacteria, archaea, eukarya
all members are single celled and microscopic bacteria and archaea
four kingdoms of eukarya protista, fungi, plantae, animalia
not made of cells viruses
enters the cell and destroys it lytic cycle
injects genetic material into the cell to create a mutation lysogenic cycle
no internal organelles; always unicellular; one ribosome; divide by binary fission bacteria
shorter than pili; attach to various surfaces; hold bacterial cells in clumps fimbriae
small circular DNA found only in bacteria plasmid
made of cellulose or chitin eukaryote cell wall
made of peptidoglycan- a network of sugar polymers that are cross linked by polypeptides bacterial cell wall
spherical shaped bacteria cocci
rod-shaped bacteria baccili
spiral-shaped bacteria spirocyte
peptidoglycan layer that is thick is found in the wall of this type of bacteria gram+
peptidoglycan layer that is thin is found in the wall of this type of bacteria gram-
DNA is genetic material; phospholipids; small cell size; wall contains peptidoglycan; no internal organelles; no nucleus prokaryotic cell
DNA is genetic material; phospholipds; large in size; animal cell-no cell wall, plant cell- cell wall with cellulose; internal organelles; nucleus eukaryotic cells
inside the body in vivo
outside the body in vitro
get food and habitat from host and do not cause the host problems resident bacteria
over run the body when the immune system is down to cause problems opportunistic bacteria
bacterial organisms in the blood bacteriemia
bacterial orgamisms and toxins in the blood septicemia
toxins are in the blood toxiemia
first antibiotic that was developed in the 1940's penicillin
developed the first antibiotic alexander fleming
three factors of genetic variation in prokaryotic cells 1. rapid reproduction 2. mutation 3. genetic recombination
types of genetic recombination transformation, transduction, conjugation
to take up and incorporate foreign DNA transformation
movement of genes between bacteria by bacteriophages transduction
can live through extreme environments; considered extremophiles archaea
orgamisms that live in extremely hot temperatures thermophiles
orgamisms that live in extremely salty environments halophiles
orgamisms that live with out oxygen anerobes
in the kingdom protista; unicellular and most capable of movement protozoans
in the kingdom protista; multicellular and capable of photosynthesis algae
first life form to evolve other than bacteria or archaea protists
pathogenic protists that cause malaria and giardia plasmodium and falciparum
the protists that moves through the use of a pseudopod amoeba
small photosynthesizing organisms that float near the surface of water phytoplankton
protists that do no get their nutrients by preforming photosynthesis heterotropic protists
release enzymes from the body to degrade food particles to feed off of saprophytic(fungi)
heterotrophs; multicellular; decomposers of the living world fungi
unicellular; reproduce by budding yeast
composite organisms made up of fungi and algae lichens
eukaryotes; multicellular; capable of photosynthesis; asexual and sexual reprodution plantae
four principal catagories of plants bryophytes; seedless vascular plants; gymnosperms; angiosperms
eukaryotes; multicellular; sexual reproduction; heterotophs animalia
small creatures dwelling in aquatic or moist terrestrial environments; EX- tapeworms & flukes: platyhelminthes flatworms
have segmented bodies; EX- earthworms & leeches; annelida segmented worms
exist in enormous number and all kinds of habitats; most are microscopic; pests and parasites; EX- roundworms, hookworms, pinworms; nematoda roundworms
enormous and extremely varied; have exoskeletons arthropods
three subphyla of arthropods chelicerata;crustacca; uniramia
spiders, ticks, mites and horseshoe crabs fit into this subphyla chelicerata
shrimp, lobsters, crabs and barnacles fit into this subphyla crustacca
millipedes and centipedes along with insects fit into this subphyla uniramia
all vertebrates including humans vertebrata
creatures called lancelets cephalochordata
the tunicates or sea squirts urochordata
all possess a rod-shaped support structure called a notochrod chordates
unable to change a bacteria DNA structure termed: wild
changed plasmid bacteria sequence recombinant
the manipulation of organisms or their genetic components to make useful products biotechnology
direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes genetic engineering
two or more segments of DNA that have been combined into a sequence that does not exist in nature recombinant DNA
an orgamism whose genome has stably incorporated on or more genes from another species transgenic organism
two of the various tools used in the production of transgenic organisms restriction enzymes and plasmids
with out ____ bacteria will die bacterial chromosome
with out _____ bacteria will not die plasmid
these protect bacteria from viruses restriction enzymes
can cut and thereby destroy the DNA of invading viruses restriction enzymes
two types of restriction enzymes restriction endonucleases and DNA ligase
small extra chromosomal rings of bacterial DNA that can exist outside of bacterial cells and move into cells through the process of transformation plasmids
vehicles for gene transfer vector
recombinant DNA rDNA
production of synthetic human growth hormone(HGH)began in ____ 1980's
genetically engineered inslulin was the first marketed biotechnology product approved for sale in____ 1982
a large number of biotechnologic drugs are made by transgenic_____ E. coli
transgenic varities of crop plants are considered____ genetically modified
______ is an example of a GM crop that has been engineered to produce beta-carotene golden rice
a genetically identical copy of a biological entity clone
the process of makig adult clones of mammals of a defined genotype reproductive cloning
____ was cloned in 1997 by ian wilmut in scotland dolly
developing from one zygote that splits and forms two embryos monozygotic
developing from two seperate eggs that are fertilized by two seperate sperm dizygotic
to engineer genetically identical offspring is termed___ cloning
a technique that quickly amplifies a small amount of DNA into enough DNA for analysis polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
comparing two sets of physical samples of DNA forensic DNA typing
in a PCR there are ___ types of materials that are mixed 4
types of material that are mixed in a PCR DNA polymerase; DNA primers; DNA nucleotides; DNA target specimen
each thermocycler takes ____ minuets and can produce____ copies of a specific DNA molecule 1-3; millions
enzyme derived from archaea tag polymerase
human genomes are filled with short sequences of DNA that are repeated over and over are termed short tandem repeats (STR'S)
two types of stem cells embryonic and adult stem found in bone marrow
most diversidfied stem cell embryonic
this is created when male sperm fuses with the female egg zygote
once a zygote starts to divide it is called an embryo
first phase of embryonic developement that produces a ball of cells cleavage
second stage of embryonic developement in which the blastulas cells rearrange themselves into three layers gastrulation
third stage of embryonic developement in which organs begin to form organogenesis
ball of calls with an interior fluid filled cavity blastula
gives rise to interior tissues endoderm
gives rise to exterior tissues mesoderm
gives rise to the tissues that are most exterior ectoderm
develpement is fundamentally controlled by the interaction of ____ and ____ genes; proteins
comparing two sets of physical samples of DNA forensic DNA typing
in a PCR there are ___ types of materials that are mixed 4
types of material that are mixed in a PCR DNA polymerase; DNA primers; DNA nucleotides; DNA target specimen
each thermocycler takes ____ minuets and can produce____ copies of a specific DNA molecule 1-3; millions
enzyme derived from archaea tag polymerase
human genomes are filled with short sequences of DNA that are repeated over and over are termed short tandem repeats (STR'S)
two types of stem cells embryonic and adult stem found in bone marrow
most diversidfied stem cell embryonic
this is created when male sperm fuses with the female egg zygote
once a zygote starts to divide it is called an embryo
first phase of embryonic developement that produces a ball of cells cleavage
second stage of embryonic developement in which the blastulas cells rearrange themselves into three layers gastrulation
third stage of embryonic developement in which organs begin to form organogenesis
ball of calls with an interior fluid filled cavity blastula
gives rise to interior tissues endoderm
gives rise to exterior tissues mesoderm
gives rise to the tissues that are most exterior ectoderm
develpement is fundamentally controlled by the interaction of ____ and ____ genes; proteins
this is caused when neurons in the brain stop making dopamine parkinsons disease
the use of cloning to produce human embryonic stem cells that can be used to treat disease and injury therapeutic cloning
when one cell splits into two with both "daughter" cells being exact replicas of the parental cell binary fission
chemical compouds produced by one microorganism that are toxic to another microorganism antibiotics
causing disease pathogenic
a form of life in which individual cells form stable associations with one another but do not take on specialized roles colonial multicellularity
a form of life in which individual cells exist in stable groups with different cells in a group specializing in different functions true multicellularity
non cellular replicating entities that must invade living cells to carry out their replication viruses
an orgamism whose genome has stably incorporated one or more genes from another species transgenic organism
to make an exact genetic copy clone
cloning intended to produce genetically identical adult animals reproductive cloning
Created by: chop