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VET 1055 Ch 13

Nerves of Steel

QuestionAnswer
coordinates and controls body activity; detects and processes internal and external information and formulates appropriate responses nervous system
portion of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord central nervous system (CNS)
portion of the nervous system that consists of the cranial and spinal nerves, somatic nervous system, and ganglia peripheral nervous system (PNS)
basic unit of the nervous system neurons
nerves that carry sensory impulses toward the CNS; also called afferent or ascending tracts sensory neurons
nerves that carry impulses from one neuron to another associative neurons or connecting neurons
nerves that carry impulses away from the CNS and toward the muscles and glands; also called efferent or descending tracts motor neurons
root-like structures that receive impulses and conduct them toward the cell body dendrites, dendr/o
single process that extends away from the cell body axon, ax/o
bundles of nerve fibers bound together by specialized tissues nerves or nerve trunks
nerve fibers are covered with this tube-like membrane neurolemma
neuron cell bodies grouped together within the CNS nuclei
neuron cell bodies grouped together outside the CNS ganglia
junction between two neurons or between a neuron and a receptor synapse, synaps/o or snyapt/o
a synapse is the junction where neural impulses cause a release of this substance neurotransmitters
supportive cells of the nervous system neuroglia or glial cells
star-shaped cells that cover the capillary surface of the brain and help form the blood-brain barrier in the CNS astrocytes
small phagocytic cells that help fight infection in the CNS microglia
cells with few branches that hold the nerve fibers together and help form myelin in the CNS oligodendrocytes
help form myelin in the PNS Schwann cells
protective covering over some nerve cells, electrical insulator myelin, myelin sheathe
one or more bundles of impulse-carrying fibers that connect the CNS to the other parts of the body nerve
group of nerve fibers located in the CNS. tract
knotlike mass of neuron cell bodies located outside the CNS ganglion
network of intersecting nerves or vessels plexus
supply or stimulation of a body part through the action of nerves innervation
sensory organs that receive external stimulation and transmit that information to the sensory neurons receptors
something that excites or activates stimulus
a wave of excitation transmitted through nervous tissue impulse
automatic, involuntary response to change reflex
connective tissue that encases the brain and spinal cord meninx, meninges
clear, colorless ultrafiltrate that nourishes, cools, and cushions the CNS cerebrospinal fluid
portion of the skull that encloses and protects the brain cranium, crani/o (skull)
within the cranium intracranial
combining form for brain encephel/o
largest part of the brain responsible for receiving and processing stimuli, initiating voluntary movement, and storing information cerebrum, cerebr/o
second largest part of the brain, coordinates muscle activity for smooth movement cerebellum, cerebell/o
stalklike portion of the brain that connects the cerebral hemispheres with the spinal cord brainstem
bridge at the base of the brain that allows nerves to cross over so that one side of the brain controls the opposite side of the body pons
cranial continuation of the spinal cord that controls basic life functions medulla oblongata
caudal continuation of the medulla oblongata that passes through the foramen magnum spinal cord
combining form for spinal cord myel/o
medical term for swelling (normal or abnormal) caused by an increase in white matter and cell bodies that are associated with the innervation of limbs intumescence
swelling occurring in the area of C6-T2 cervical intumescence
swelling occurring in the area of the L4-caudal segment lumbosacral intumescence
brain divisions chart based on location are on page 272
layers of fibrocartilage that form pads seperating and cushioning the vertebrae from each others intervertebral discs
12 pairs; originate from the undersurface of the brain. cranial nerves; chart describing each on page 273
nerves arising from the spinal cord spinal nerves
root of spinal nerves that enters the dorsal portion of the spinal cord and carries afferent of sensory impulses from the periphery to the spinal cord dorsal root
emerges from the ventral portion of the spinal cord and carries efferent of motor impulses from the spinal cord to muscle fibers or glands ventral root
network of intersecting nerves plexus
forelimb is supplied with nerves from here brachial plexis
hindlimb is supplied with nerves from here lumbosacral plexus
part of the peripheral surface that innervates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands autonomic nervous system
provides emergency and stress response; "fight or flight" sympathetic nervous system
returns body to normal after stressful response; maintains normal body function parasympathetic nervous system
removal of cerebrospinal fluid; CSF tap cerebrospinal fluid tap
radiographic study of an intervertebral disc after injection of contrast material into the disc discography
process of recording electrical activity in the brain; EEG electroencephalography
diagnostic study of the spinal cord after injection of contrast material myelography
response of pupil to bright light source; PLR pupillary light reflex
memory loss amnesia
malignant intracranial tumor composed of astrocytes astrocytoma
without coordination "stumbling" ataxia
waxing rigidity of muscles accompanied by trancelike state catalepsy
sudden attacks of muscular weakness and hypotonia triggered by an emotional response cataplexy
smaller than normal cerebellum; seen in cats secondary to feline panleukopenia virus, which leads to incoordination cerebellar hypoplasia
abnormal formation or instability of the caudal cervical vertebrae that causes ataxia and incoordination; horses and dogs cervical vertebral malformation; Wobbler's syndrome
repetitive, rhythmic contraction of limb or facial muscles; usually the result of distemper viral infection in dogs chorea, myoclonus
inflammation of the choroid plexus and meninges choriomeningitis
shaking of the brain caused by injury concussion
neurologic defect in which the animal appears not to know where the limbs are conscious proprioceptive deficit (CP deficit) knuckling
bruising contusion
condition of mental functions caused by damage to the midbrain decerebration
destruction or loss of myelin demyelination
destructive inflammatory disorder that involves the intervertebral discs, vertebral end-plates, and vertebral bodies discospondylitis
inflammation of the brain encephalitis
herniation of the brain through a gap in the skull encephalocele
abnormal softening of the brain encephalomalacia
inflammation of the brain and spinal cord enchephalomyelitis
any disease of the brain enchephalopathy
recurrent seizures of nonsystemic origin or of intracranial disease epilepsy
unknown cause or disease of an individual idiopathic
false sensory perception hallucination
mass or collection of blood hematoma
collection of blood above or superficial to the dura mater epidural hematoma
collection of blood below the dura mater and above the arachnoid membrane subdural hematoma
paralysis of one side of the body hemiplegia
collection of signs relating to injury of the cervical sympathetic innervation to the eye; signs include sinking of the eyeball, ptosis of the upper eyelid, pupil constriction, prolapse of the third eyelid Horner's syndrome
abnormally elevated amount of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain "water on the brain" hydrocephalus
excessive sensitivity hyperesthesia
increased motor function or activity hyperkinesis
condition of altered awareness; trancelike state hypnosis
condition of pain and neurologic deficits resulting from the displacement of part of all of the material in the disc located between the vertebrae intervertebral disc disease
abnormal softening of the white matter of the brain leukoencephalomalacia
abnormally large skull macrocephaly
benign tumor of the meninges meningioma
inflammation of the meninges meningitis
protrusion of hte meninges through a defect in the skull or vertebrae meningocele
inflammation of the meninges and brain meningoencephalitis
inflammation of the meninges, brain, and spinal cord meningoenchephalomyelitis
abnormally small skull microcephaly
paralysis of one limb monoplegia
inflammation of the spinal cord or bone marrow myelitis
disease of the spinal cord or bone marrow myelopathy
weakness of muscles myoparesis
syndrome of recurrent uncontrollable sleep episodes narcolepsy
nerve pain neuralgia
neuritis inflammation of the nerves
tetanic spasm in which the head and tail are bent dorsally and the back is arched opisthotonos
loss of voluntary movement or immobility paralysis
paralysis of the lower body in bipeds or of hindlimbs in quadrupeds paraplegia
abnormal sensation; may include tingling, numbness, or burning and may be difficult to assess in animals parasthesia
abnormal softening of the gray matter of the brain, abbreviated PEM polioencephalomalacia
inflammation of the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord polioencephalomyelitis
inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord poliomyelitis
inflammation of many nerves polyneuritis
inflammation of many peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots that may lead to progressive paralysis polyradiculoneuritis, coonhound paralysis, idiopathic polyradiculoneuropathy
prolapse or drooping ptosis
inflammation of the root of a spinal nerve radiculitis
noisy respiration caused by air passing through a narrowed larynx in horses roaring, equine laryngeal hemiplegia
sudden, involuntary contraction of some muscles caused by a brain disturbance seizure; convulsions
state of increased muscular tone spasticity
congenital anomaly in which the spinal canal does not close over the spinal cord spina bifida
fainting syncope
paralysis of all four limbs tetraplegia; quadriplegia
involuntary trembling tremor
neurologic disorder characterized by head tilt, nystagmus, rolling, falling, and circling vestibular disease
period before a seizure preictal
attack or actual seizure ictus
period after seizure postictal
absence of sensation anesthesia
substance used to induce anesthesia anesthetic
absence of sensation after a substance has been applied to the skin or external surface topical anesthetic
absence of sensation after chemical injections to an adjacent area local anesthetic
absence of sensation to a region after injection of a chemical into the epidural space epidural anesthetic
absence of sensation and consciousness general anesthetic
removal of intevertebral disc material by perforating and scraping out its contents disc fenestration
impaired sensation dysesthesia
surgical removal of the lamina of the vertebra to relieve pressure on the spinal cord laminectomy
surgical removal of a nerve neurectomy
connecting nerves together neuroanastomosis
surgical repair of a nerve neuroplasty
suturing the ends of a severed nerve neurorrhaphy
surgical incision or dissection of a nerve neurotomy
Created by: maiken