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Pharm Midterm

QuestionAnswer
What is an agonist? Drug that brings out a specific action by binding with the appropriate receptor.
What is an antagonist? Drug that inhibits a specific action by binding with a particular receptor.
What is extralabel use? Use of a drug that is not specifically listed on the USDA-approved label.
What is withdrawal time? Length of time it takes for a drug to be eliminated from animal tissue.
4 drug sources Plants, minerals, hormones, bacteria/mold
3 methods of selecting appropriate drug for pt. symtomatic, diagnostic and empiracal
4 pts of regimine route of administration, dosage, frequency, duration
4 technician responsibilities correct drug, correct route and time, observe pt response to drug, question orders that are not clear
What is a steady state? point at which drug accumulation equals drug elimination
Factors that effect absorption: mechanism of absorption, pH and ionization status of drug, absorptive surface area, blood supply to area
3 types of meds that can be inhaled bronchodilators, antibiotics, anesthetics
Passive absorption: drugs move from *blank* to *blank* high to low
Active transport: drugs move from *blank* to *blank* low to high
Two factors that increase absorption location administered, hydration status of pt
If drug has high lipid content or is nonionized, it meant that it will or will not pass through cell wall? *Will*
Most drug metabolism takes place in: Liver
Most drug waste excretes from: Kidneys
Fiver parts of needle/syringe: Needle,Hub, Barrel, Plunger, Dead area
Insulin syringe measures in: Units
Microencapsulation: drug form that stabilizes substances commonly considered unstable
Five RIGHTS a technician should follow: Right patient, Right medication, Right dose< Right route, Right time and rate of admin
IV ver rapid onset, shortest duration
IM can cause nerve damage if given incorrectly
SQ no hyperosmotic solution to be given this way
IP onset and duration can be variable
ID testing for tuberculosis
IC for CPR or euthanasia
IA injection into joint for local inflammation
Afferent nerves that carry information toward CNS
Efferent nerves that carry info toward muscles/glands
Autonomic Nervous System part of PNS responsible for involuntary control
Somatic Nervous System part of PNS responsible for voluntary control
fight or flight respons sympathetic nervous system
neurotransmitters norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, acetylcholine
Receptors Alpha 1 & 2, Beta 1 & 2, Dopaminergic, Nicotinic, Muscarinic
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic NS make up autonomic nervous system
Synapse area where neurotransmitters work and current crosses
what do the turbinates do? humidify and warm air
What is the job of alveoli oxygen and CO2 exchange
when the mucus and cilia work together, what is their purpose? remove debris
How does uremia affect the tissues of the body? makes them mores sensitive to drugs
if pt has kidney issues, what diet should they be fed? low sodium
binders hold tablet together
coating protects tab from breaking or absorbing moisture
Coloring agents enhance appearance
Disintegrants allow capsules to dissolve
Emulsifiers allow fat and water soluble agents to mix so they do not separate
Fillers increase bulk
Flavorings enhance taste
Flow agents prevent powder from sticking together
Humectants hold moisture in product
Preservatives prevent degredation
Sweeteners improve taste
Thickeners increase viscocity
Factors that influence absorption: pH of drug, solubility, size/shape of molecule, presence and nature of disease, +/- food in GI tract, V/D - NO!
Drug storage sites: fat, liver, kidney, bone
metabolized by */excreted by * liver, kidney
kidneys excrete in 2 mechanisms: glomerular filtration and tubular secretion
Drug label should contain (8): drug name, drug concentration/quantity, name and addy of manufacturer, controlled substance status, manufacturers control number, expiration date, instructions, warning of adverse effects
Chemical Name: describes molecular structure of drug
Cod or Lab name: given by research and development
Compendial Name: US Pharmacopoeia Plumbs book
Official Name: same as compendial or generic
Proprietary or trade Name: chosen by manufacturer, short and easily remembered
Generic name: common name chosen by company
To include in medical record(4): when, what, how, by whom
4 portions of brain that deal w/ NS: Cerebrum, Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Medulla
CNS consists of: brain and spinal cord
PNS consists of: process that connects the CNS with various glands, muscles and receptors in the body
Neurons: transmit info from point to point
Polarized: Resting, fiber has + on outside and - on inside
Depolarization: stimulus of sufficient magnitude raches the fiber, + becomes - and - becomes + in a wave down towards the synapse
Repolarization: movement of charges back to original place
drugs effect is equal to: # of receptors in teh effector and the drugs specificity for the recepto
Alpha 1 target: arterioles, urethra, eye
Alpha 2 target: skeletal muscle
Beta 1 target: heart, kidneys
Beta 2 target: skeletal blood vessels, bronchioles
Dopaminergic target: kidneys, heart, mesentreric blood vessels
Resp passageways: Nostrils, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles
Resp system functions: oxygen-CO2 exchange, regulation of acid-base balance, body temp regulation, voice production
Distribution: gases throughout the lungs
Diffusion: movement of gases across the alveolar membrane
Perfusion: supply of blood to alveoli
3 goals for tx of resp dz: control of secretions, control of reflexes, maintaining normal airflow to alveoli
Myocardium: strong muscle tissue
Arrhythmias: spontaneous depolarization of cardiac muscle or abnormalities of the conduction system
Arteries: take blood to tissues
Stimulation Alpha 1: vasoconstriction
Stimulation Beta 2: Vasodilation
Cardiac output: amt of blood heart is capable of pumping/min
Stroke volume: amt of blood that fills the ventricle during diastole (preload)
4 cardiac dz categories: valvular, cardiac arrhythmias,myocardial dz, others
4 tx of Cardio dz: maintain/increase cardiac output, relieve fluid accumulations, increase the oxygenation of blood, ancillary tx
3 small intestine sections: duodenum, jejunum, ileum
Created by: nlchandler87