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VET 1055 Ch 14

Seeing and Hearing

QuestionAnswer
ocular system responsible for vision
eyes receptor organs for sight
opt/i, opt/o, optic/o, ocul/o, ophthalm/o combining forms for eye or sight
extraocular outside the eyeball
intraocular inside the eyeball
periocular around the eyeball
adnexa accessory structures of an organ
stroma supporting tissue of an organ
orbit bony cavity of the skull that contains the eyeball
periorbita eye socket
eye muscles seven major muscles attached to each eye that make a range of movement possible (two oblique, four rectus, and the retractor bulbi
binocular both eyes
extrinsic muscles six muscles that attach the outside of the eyeball to the bones of the orbit
levator palpebrae muscles muscles that raise the upper eyelid
eyelids each eye has an upper and lower to protect the eye from injury, foreign material, and excessive light
blephar/o combining form for eyelid
palpebra, palpebrae another term for eyelid
canthus the angle where the upper and lower eyelids meet
canth/o combining form for corner of the eye
tarsal plate platelike framework within the upper and lower eyelids that provides stiffness and shape
tars/o combining form for edge of the eyelid
meibomian glands sebaceous glands on the margins of each eyelid, also called tarsal glands
eyelashes edge of each eyelid has hairlike structures called cilia, protect the eye from foreign material
conjunctiva mucous membrane that lines the underside of each eyelid, forms a protective covering of the exposed surface of the eyeball when the eyelids are closed
conjunctiv/o combining form for conjunctiva
nictitating membrane conjunctival fold attached at the medial canthus that moves across the cornea when the lids close, also called the third eyelid, nictitans, or haws
lacrimal apparatus structures that produce, store, and remove tears
lacrimation condition of normal tear secretion
lacrim/o and dacry/o teardrop
lacrimal canaliculi ducts at the medial canthus that collect tears and drain them into the lacrimal sac
page 291 for more eye structures
accommodation the process of eye adjustments for seeing objects at various distances accomplished through changes in lens shape
refraction process of the lens bending the light rays to help them focus on the retina (focusing)
convergence simultaneous inward movement of both eyes
acuity sharpness or acuteness
conjuntival scrape diagnostic test using an instrument to peel cells from the conjunctiva so they can be viewed microscopically
electroretinography procedure of recording the electrical activity of the retina
electroretinogram record of electrical activity of the retina (ERG)
fluorescein dye stain diagnostic test to detect corneal injury by placing dye on the surface of the cornea
goniometry procedure to measure the drainage angle of the eye
menace response diagnostic test to test vision in which movement is made toward the animal to test whether it will see movement and try to close its eyelids
ophthalmascope instrument used for ophthalmoscopy
ophthalmoscopy procedure used to examine the interior eye structure, may be direct of indirect
palpebral reflex diagnostic test in which the eye should blink in response to touch to the medial canthus of the eye. used to make neurological assessment of cranial nerves V and VII and assess depth of anesthesia
pupillary light reflex response of pupil to light; abbreviated PLR. When light is shown in the pupil, construction should take place
cycloplegics cause paralysis of the ciliary muscle that may aid in dilation of the pupil and ease the pain of ciliary muscle spasms
mydriatics agents that dilate the pupil
schirmer tear test diagnostic test using a graded paper strip to measure tear production
slit lamp examination visual testing of the cornea, lens, fluids, and membranes of the interior of the eye using a narrow beam of light
tonometry procedure using an instrument to measure intraocular pressure directly
intraocular pressure determined by the resistance of the eyeball to indentation by an applied force
amblyopia dimness of loss of sight without detectable eye disease
anisocoria condition of unequal pupil size
anophthalmos without development of one or both eyes
aphakia absence of the lens
blepharitis inflammation of the eyelid
blepharoptosis drooping of the upper lid
blepharospasm rapid, involuntary contraction of the eyelid
blindness inability to see
buphthalmos abnormal enlargement of the eye
cataract cloudiness of opacity of the lens
chalazion localized swelling of the eyelid resulting from the obstruction of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid
conjunctivitis inflammation of the conjuntiva
corneal ulceration surface depression on the cornea
cyclopia congenital anomaly characterized by a single orbit
dacryoadenitis inflammation of the lacrimal gland
dacryocystitis inflammation of the lacrimal sac and abnormal tear drainage
diplopia double vision
distichiasis abnormal condition of a double row of eyelashes that usually result in conjunctival injury
distichia double row of eyelashes
ectropion eversion, or turning outward, of the eyelid
entropion inversion, or turning inward of the eyelid
epiphora excessive tear production
epischleritis inflammation of the tissue of the cornea
exophthalmus abnormal protrusion of the eyeball
floaters particles that cast shadows on the retina suspended in the vitreous fluid
glaucoma group of disorders resulting from elevated intraocular pressure
hordeolum infection of one or more glands of the eyelid, also called a stye
hypertropia deviation of one eye upward
hypopyon pus in the anterior chamber of the eye
hypotropia deviation of one eye downward
iritis inflammation of the iris
keratitis inflammation of the cornea
keratoconjunctivitis inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva (KCS)
macular degeneration condition of central vision loss
microphthalmia abnormally small eyes; also called microphthalmos
monochromatism lack of ability to distinguish colors, color blindness
nuclear schlerosis drying out of the lens with age
nyctalopia condition of inability or difficulty seeing at night, night blindness
nystagmus involuntary, constant, rhythmic movement of the eye
ophthalmoplegia paralysis of eye muscles
panophthalmitis inflammation of all eye structure
papilledema swelling of the optic disk
photophobia fear or intolerance of light
proptosis displacement of the eye from the orbit
retinal detachment seperation of the nervous layer of the eye from the choroid; also called detached retina
retinopathy any disorder of the retina
schleral injection dilation of blood vessels into the schlera
schleritis inflammation of the schlera
strabismus disorder in which the eyes are not directed in a parallel manner, deviation of one or both eyes
synechia adhesion that binds the iris to an adjacent structure
uveitis inflammation of the uvea
blepharectomy surgical removal of all or part of the eyelid
blepharoplasty surgical repair of the eyelid
blepharorrhaphy suturing together of the eyelids, also called tarsorrhaphy
blepharotomy incision of the eyelid, also called tarsotomy
canthectomy surgical removal of the corner of the eyelid
canthoplasty surgical repair of the palpebra fissure
canthotomy incision into the corner of the eyelid
conjunctivoplasty surgical repair of the conjuntiva
dacryocystectomy surgical removal of the lacrimal sac
dacryocystotomy incision into the lacrimal sac
enucleation removal of the eyeball
extracapsular extraction removal of a cataract that leaves the posterior lens capsule intact
goniotomy incision into the anterior chamber angle for treatment of glaucoma
intracapsular extraction cataract removal that includes the surrounding capsule
iridectomy surgical removal of a portion of the iris
keratectomy surgical removal of a part of the cornea
keratocentisis puncture of the cornea to allow aspiration of aqueous humor
keratoplasty surgical repair of the cornea
keratotomy incision into the cornea
lacromotomy incision into the lacrimal gland or duct
lensectomy surgical removal of the lens
tarsectomy surgical removal of all or part of the tarsal plate of the third eyelid
tarsorrhaphy suturing together of the eyelids
page 298 functions and structures of the ear
air conduction sound waves enter the ear through the pinna, travel through the external auditory canal, and strike the tympanic membrane
bone conduction ossicles conduct the sound waves through the middle ear
sensorineural conduction stimulation of hair cells in the organ of Corti initiates a nerve impulse that is transmitted to the vestibulocochlear nerve.
equilibrium state of balance
otoscopy procedure used to examine the ear for parasites, irritation to the ear lining, discharge, and the integrity of the tympanic membrane
otoscope the instrument used for otoscopy
aural hematoma collection or mass of blood on teh outer ear
aural pertaining to the ear
deafness complete or partial hearing loss
myringitis inflammation of the ear drum
otalgia ear pain
otitis inflammation of the ear; usually has a second term that describes location;
otitis externa inflammation of the outer ear
otitis media inflammation of the middle ear
otitis interna inflammation of the inner ear
otomycosis fungal infection of the ear
otopathy disease of the ear
otopyorrhea pus discharge from the ear
otorrhea ear discharge
panotitis inflammation of all ear parts
vertigo sense of dizziness
ablation removal of a part
myringectomy surgical removal of all or part of the eardrum; also called tympanectomy
otoplasty surgical repair of the ear
Created by: maiken