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bio 1100 e-2

QuestionAnswer
In a human cell that is haploid, how many chromosomes, autosomes, and sex chromosomes are there 23 chromosomes, 22 autosomes, and 1 sex chromosome
which of the following is the proper sequence of events in gene expression? DNA> mRNA> protein
at what point in the cell cycle does DNA replication take place? before mitosis; in interphase; during synthetic phase
during DNA replication, what acts as the template for synthesis of a new strand of DNA a single strand of DNA
what event typically begins in anaphase and is completed soon after the end of telophase cytokinesis
how many chromosomes are in human gamets 23
what organism reproduces by binary fission bacteria
which molecule is made in the nucleus but exits to function in the cytoplasm mRNA
the fertilization of an egg by a sperm produces a cell called a/an zygote
products of meiosis four haploid cells
a gene is a heredity unit that carries information for a sequence of amino acids
what process contributes least to genetic diversity duplication of DNA
during the cell cycle of the eukaryotic cell each chromosome is replicated to become a chromosome with two chromatids
what is the initial step in DNA replication unwinding of the DNA double helix
what is the relationship between genes and chromosomes a chromosome is a DNA molecule with many genes
the chief accomplishment of telophase is the organization of chromosomes into new nuclei
non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes exchage genetic material during crossing over
chromosome I from your mother and chromosome I from your father are said to be homologous because the chromosomes have the same genes on them
a liver cell from a male has 22 pairs of autosomes, an X chromosome, and a Y chromosome
how do daughter cells at the end of mitosis and cytokinesis compare to the parent cells before DNA replication the daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and the same amount of DNA
what distinguishes one gene from another the order of nitrogen bases in the gene
observable trait of an organism phenotype
mendels genetic elements that exist in pairs which determine a single phenotype two alleles of a gene on a homologous chromosome
tracking the inheritance of two characters requires a dihybrid cross
each allele of a gene produces a protein that functions to create a trait the basis of codominance
characters such as height, weight, skin color are controlled by many genes acting together which are examples of polygenic inheritence
the phenotype of an organism is influenced by environment and its genotype
genes not found on sex chromosomes are found on autosomes
a pedigree is a representation of genetic family tree
if more than one sperm fertilizes an egg the result will be polyploidy
failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate in meiosis nondisjunction
cause of down syndrome in humans three copies of chromosome 21
combination of chromosomes found in a person with turner syndrome XO
cri-du-chat syndrome babies make sounds like the cry of a cat which is caused by a/an deletion in chromosome 5
which type of trait is always expressed first dominate
the transmission of one character does not influence the transmission of another character law of segregation
exchange of reciprocal chromosomal segments with one another crossing over
random alignment of maternal and paternal chromosomes on either side of the metaphase plate independent assortment
organism that has two identical alleles of a gene for a given character is said to be homozygous
organism that has differing alleles for a character heterozygous
determines sex linked diseases chromosome x
determines autosomal disease that could be dominate or recessive chromosomes 1-22
recessive sex linked genetic disorder in which blood fails to clot hemophilla
recessive sex linked genetic disorder that causes color blindness; passed from the mother to the son red-green color blindness
child has 25% of being affected by this type of disorder autosomal recessive
most common autosomal recessive lethal genetic disease in the united states resulting in defective or absent chloride transport channels cystic fibrosis
a well known autosomal recessive disorder with altered red blood cell shape sickle-cell anemia
autosomal recessive condition characterized by lack of pigmentation in the skin and hair albinism
child has a 50% chance of being affected by this type of disorder autosomal dominant
marfan's syndrome, polydactyly, and huntingdon's disease are examples of autosomal dominant genetic disorders
a pictorial arrangement of an orgamisms full complement of chromosomes karotype
xx chromosome pairs female
xy chromosome pairs male
developing from one zygote that splits and forms two embryos monozygotic(identical)
developing from two separate eggs that are fertilized by the same sperm dizygotic(fraternal)
one of more entire set of chromosomes have been added to an organisms genome; often results in death polyploidy
a small number of extra or missing chromosomes have been inherited aneuploidy
combination of chromosomes found in a person with kleinfelter syndrome XXY
often seen in cancer cells; may be a cause of cancer aneuploidy
mistakes in chromosomal interactions aberrations in chromosomal structure
deletion of a portion of chromosome 5 will result in cru-di-chat syndrome
genetic familial histories that normally take the form of diagrams pedigrees
if only two individuals have a disorder recessive condition
DNA> mRNA + tRNA + an amino acid in the ribosome translation
DNA> mRNA in the nucleus transcription
DNA> DNA DNA polymerases
DNA> RNA RNA polymerases
opposing nitrogen base pairs are complementary
permanent alteration in a cells DNA base sequence mutation
cells that become eggs or sperm germ-line cells(sex cells)
cells that do not give rise to eggs or sperm somatic cells (body cells)
amino acid> amino acid peptide bond
amino acid> amino acid> amino acid> amino acid etc. considered the primary protein structure polypeptide bond
building blocks of proteins amino acids
a folded polypeptide chain into its working 3-d shape secondary structure
polymer of deoxynecleotides; double helix; deoxyribose sugar; nitrogen bases a,t,g,c; phosphates DNA
polymer of nucleotides; single helix; ribose sugar; nitrogen bases a,u,g,c; phosphates RNA
the breakdown of protein denaturation
certain shape of a protein molecule protein conformation
each gene directs the synthesis of a single protein gene expression
contains the codon used for translation mRNA
contains the anticodon used for translation tRNA
UAA, UAG, UGA amino acids that will stop polypeptide formation
AUG amino acid that will start polypeptide formation
RNA molecule that does not actively participate in translation tRNA
encoded by a gene but not translated that forms the ribosomes skeleton rRNA
suppresses expression of mRNA micro-RNA
contained within a cells nucleus DNA
gene expression is regulated by splicing
genes that are spliced back together and kept; coding sequences exons
genes that are spliced and discarded; junk sequences introns
the genotype Ff is an example of heterozygous genotype
to track the inheritance of two characters a ____ should be preformed dihybrid cross
F1 generation showed no blending of inheritance
F2 generation showed 1/4 yellow 1/3 green; dominate recessive; 3:1 ration; monohybrid
genotype YY homozygous dominate
genotype yy homozygous recessive
translation takes place in the cytoplasm(ribosome)
Transcription takes place in the nucleus
Created by: chop