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Hematology

Clin Path

QuestionAnswer
What is the average life span of a canine RBC? 110 days
What are the 3 primary functions of blood? Transport, Defense, and Regulation
What type of blood cell transports bone marrow to the tissues? WBCs
Blood transports platelets to what type of sites? Injury sites
What term refers to the chemicals released during phagocytosis? Pyrogens
What are the 4 types of cells that are capable of phagocytosis? 1-Neutrophils 2-Monocyte/Macrophage 3-Eosinophil 4-Basophil
What are the 2 types of defense in regards to blood function? WBCs and platelets
What are the 3 things blood is responsible for regulating within the body? Temperature, pH, and Homeostasis
What is the normal temperature range for cats/dogs? 101-102.5
How is body temperature controlled? By metabolic activity
What is the normal pH of the blood? 7.35-7.45pH
What are the 4 types of fluid dynamics? 1-Intracellular fluid (cells) 2-Extracellular fluid (Plasma) 3-Interstitual fluid (Between tissues) 4-Intravascular fluid (Both Intra and Extra)
What term refers to the arrest of stoppage of blood flow from the body? Hemostasis
What condition of the blood refers to a high PCV and low plasma? Hemoconcentration
What condition of the blood refers to a low PCV and high plasma? Hemodilution
Blood accounts for what percentage of an animals body weight? 7%
Components of blood are species dependant and are usually very similar to the animal's _________. PCV
What are the 3 primary components of blood and their percentages? 91% Water, 7% Proteins, and 2% other solutes
What is included in the 7% protein portion of blood? Albumin, Globulin, Fibrinogen and Enzymes
What are the cells of the blood in order of commonality? RBCs, PLTs, WBCs
What is the average range for platelets found in an animal? 200,000-500,000
What is the average range for WBCs found in an animal? 6,000-17,000
What are the WBCs found in the blood in order of commonality and what are their percent ranges? 1-Neutrophils (60-77%) 2-Lymphocytes (12-30%) 3-Monocytes (3-10%) 4-Eosinophils (2-10%) 5-Basophils (RARE)
What WBC is elevated in Texas due to yearround allergies and parasites? Eosinophils
What protein is also known as the chief transporter? Albumin
What protein is also known to be a complex group of proteins? Globulin
What protein draws fluid into intercellular space? Albumin
What are the 3 gases that make up the other solutes portion of blood? O2, CO2 and N
What are the 3 nutrients that make up the other solutes portion of blood? Carbs, Lipids and Amino Acids
What are the 6 electrolytes that make up the other solutes portion of blood? Na, K, Cl, Mg, Ca, and Bi-Carbonate Ion
What type of blood refers to blood that comes from anywhere other than the center of the body? Peripheral Blood
What type of tissue is blood considered? Connective tissue
Whole blood = _____________ + _____________ Cells + Plasma
In what type of animals will lymphocytes outnumber neutrophils? Cattle
What is the life span of feline RBCs? 68-70 days
Where is blood stored? Spleen
What term refers to the tissue part of an organ? Parenchyma
What term refers to the process of creating lymphocytes? Lymphocytopoiesis
Where does hematopoiesis occur after birth? Bone marrow
Where does hematopoiesis occur before death? Bone marrow, the liver and the spleen
What is the primary difference between red marrow and yellow marrow? Red (Active), Yellow (Inactive)
Where is red marrow found in adults? At the ends of long bones and flat bones
True or false. Yellow marrow is found in young animals as well as old. False (Adult animals)
Define hypoxia. Decreased oxygen
What is the stimuli for erythropoiesis? Hypooxia
What organ has receptors that initiate erythropiesis? Kidney
1 PPSC is equal to how many RBCs? 211
True or false. Hemolized RBCs can still carry oxygen. False
How long does it take to make a RBC? 5 days
What are the 3 types of cells (also referred to as the precursor cells) that can not cary oxygen? Rubriblasts, Prorubricytes, and Rubricytes
True or false. All of the cell types involved in the maturation of a RBC are found in the bone marrow. True
What are the 8 stages of the RBC maturation process? 1-PPSC (Org) 2-Myeloid Stem Cells 3-Rubriblasts 4-Prorubricytes 5-Rubricytes 6-Metarubricyte 7-Reticulocyte 8-Mature RBC
What is the primary component of a RBC? Water (65%)
Of the remaining 35% of a RBCs components, what makes up 95% of it? Iron and Amino acids (Protein)
Besides water, iron and amino acids, what else makes up a RBC? Copper, Vitamin B6, B9, B12, Essential fatty acids and Carbs
What 2 components of a RBC make up the cell membrane? Essential Fatty acids and carbs
What RBC component helps iron to be utilized from the individuals diet? Copper
What is B6? Pyridoxine
What is B9? Folic acid
What is B12? Cobalamine
What term refers to anemia due to blood draws? Research anemia
How much of an animals circulating blood volume can be used per day? 1%
_____________ travels to the ________ and are converted to cholesterol. essential fatty acids; liver
What type of cells will you see in animals with liver issues, causing portions to stick out from lack of cholesterol? Acanthocytes
What 2 types of hb have a higher affinity for oxygen and are fulmost of the time? Embryonic and fetal
Define oxyhemoglobin. A hb that is actively carrying oxygen
Define Deoxyhemoglobin. A hb that is not actively carrying oxygen.
Define methoxyhemoglobin. A destroyed or denatured hb that is unable to carry oxygen.
What are 3 things that can cause methoxyhemoglobin? toxins, oxidative changes and some drugs (anesthesia)
What 2 species have a central pallor? Humans and canines
True or false. The hb size never changes, just the cell size. True
What are the 3 advantages to the bioconcave disk? Deformable, increased surface area and shorter distance for O2 to travel.
True or false. RBCs can take on small amounts of fluid without rupturing. True
A hb molecule carries how many oxygens? 4
What shape is a camels RBC? Ellipitical
What shape is a bird's RBC? Ellipitical with nucleus
What shape is a deer's RBC outside of the body? Sickle shaped
What animals have a ellipitical shaped RBC with no nucleus? Camels, Alpacas, and Llamas
What animals have an ellipitical shaped RBC with a nucleus? Birds, amphibians, reptiles, and fish
What term refers to the process of aging? Senescense
What enzyme decreases during senescense? Glycolytic enzyme
What happens to the shape of a RBC during senescense? Becomes more round, no longer bioconcave shaped
What shape is a deers RBCs inside of the body? Ellipitical
True or false. Drepanocytes can not carry O2. True.
What type of cell is responsible for detecting surface abnormalities? Macrophages
What organ is considered to be the RBC burial ground? Spleen
What is the percentage of RBCs that breakdown via extravascular hemolysis? 90%
Where does extravascular hemolysis occur? parenchyma
What is the chief carrier protein? Albumin
What is responsible for iron appearing red in RBCs? (The paint) Bilirubin
What is the name of the carrier protein responsible for transporting Hb to the liver during intravascular hemolysis? haptoglobin
What condition results from a build up of bilirubin within the tissues? Jaundice
What are the 4 steps of Extravascular hemolysis? 1-Cell membrane is destroyed 2-Hb is disassembled 3-Carbon is removed viz exhalation 4-Bilirubin is sent to the liver
What are the 4 steps of Intravascular hemolysis? 1-RBC ruptures 2-Hb leaks into the plasma 3-Haptoglobin carries Hb to the liver 4-Once in liver, macorphages proceed
What are the resulting conditions if the rate of intravascular hemolysis exceeds 10%? Hemoglobinuria and Hemoglobinemia
What term refers to an excess of Hb in the urine? Hemoglobinuria
What term refers to an excess of Hb in the blood? Hemoglobinemia
Excess Hb during hemoglobinemia appears in the __________. Plasma
What is the name of the bacteria that is normal in the body and is also referred to as "Enteric Bacteria"? Normal Flora
Conjugated is _____ soluble. Water
Unconjugated is ______ soluble. Fat
What is bilirubin joined to in order to be considered conjusgated? glucuronic acid
Where is bilirubin converted to urobilinogen and by what? Intestines; enteric bacteria
Some urobilinogen is reabsorbed in to the blood through the _______________________. Intestinal mucosa
Once filtered through the kidneys, urobilinogen is excreted as a ______________ in the urine. Urochrome
Some urobilinogen remains in the intestines and is converted to __________________ by enteric bacteria. Stercobilinogen
What is responsible for making urine yellow? Urobilinogen
What is responsible for making stool brown? Stercobilinogen
True or false. Intravascular hemolysis happens in vitro. False (In vivo)
What type of hemolysis occurs in vitro? Artifactual hemolysis
Name 3 causes for intravascular hemolysis. 1-IMHA 2-RBC parasites 3-Bacteria 4-Envenomation 5-Toxins 6-Acute Liver Disease 7-Insulin therapy 8-Congenital defects
What are the 3 primary types of envenomation? 1-Bee stings 2-Spider bites 3-Snake bites
Where does artifactual hemolysis occur? In vitro, outside of the body
True or false. Polycythemia is the number one cause of increased PCV. False. (dehydrated Number 1)
What term refers to an ancrease in the number of RBCs? Polycythemia
What rare bone marrow disorder is idiopathic and is common in large breed dogs? Polycythemia Rubra Vera
How is polycythemia rubra vera treated? Continious blood draws
True or false. Excess blood from a dog who has Polycythemia Rubra Vera, can be donated. False
What are the 2 types of secondary polythcemia? Relative and compensatory
What type of polycythecmia is due to hypoxia, higher latitudes and congestive heart failure? Compensatory polycythemia
What is the most common type of polycythemia? Relative
What word means "Without Blood"? Anemia
True or false. One can still have anemia even if they present with a high PCV. True
What are the 2 classifications of anemia? 1-Bone marrow response (Regen and nonregen) 2- RBC indicies
____________ is the condition resulting in decreased oxygen carrying capacity. Anemia
An anemic patient might have a decrease in all or some of these 3 tests? 1-PCV 2-Total RBC Count 3-Hb concentration
True or false. Anemia is a diagnosis. False (an underlying sign)
What are the 8 clinical signs associated with hypoxia? 1-lethargy 2-excercise intolerance 3-Anorexia 4-Weight loss 5-Splenomegaly 6-Jaundice 7-Hemoglobinuria 8-Hemoglobinemia
What 2 things are responsible for causing anemia? Decreased rate of production or increased rate of destruction
What are the 5 ways you can catagorize RBC morphology? 1-Cell arrangement 2-Size 3-Color 4-Shape 5-Presence of structures in or on
What are the 2 categories of cell arrangements? Rouleaux and agglutination
Rouleaux is normal in what type of animal? Horse
What type of cell arrangement is associated with increased fibrinogen and/or globulin concentration? Rouleaux
What type of cell arrangement occurs with immune mediated diseases? Agglutination
Microcytosis and hypochromasia generally indicate what condition? Iron defiency
Anisocytosis and polychromasia generally indicate what condition? Regenerative anemia
How many different blood types are canines known to have? 19
True or false. All dogs are given a "freebie" transfusion, meaning their first time can be of any blood type. True
What cell is the hallmark of IMHA? Spherocyte
Define DIC. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy
True or false. Schistocytes can never be due to a tech error. False
Acanthocytes are seen with disease in what organ? Liver
Echinocytes are seen with disease in what organ? Kidney
What type of cell results from an altered hemoglobin? Drepanocyte
What cell is also known as helmet cells? Keratocyte
A pseudovacuole is found in what type of cell? Keratocyte
What group of cells is characterized by increased surface area? Codocytes/Leptocytes
What are the 4 types of codocytes? Stomatocytes, folded cells, barr cells and target cells
What are the 4 common names for the keratocyte? Horned cell, Helmet cell, Bite cell and Blister cell
What two types of cells are seen with DIC? Schistocytes and keratocytes
What is another name for the knizocyte? Barr cell
What 2 types of codocytes can be caused by tech error? Stomatocytes and folded cells
All codocytes as a true finding are associated with what type of disease? Liver disease
What type of cell is also known as "Punched Out Cell"? Anulocyte
What type of cell is seen with any acute disease as well as a decreased Hb concentration? Anulocyte
What type of cell is seen with kidney disease and myeloproliferic disorders? Dacryocyte
What are the 5 structures you might see in or on a RBC? Heinz bodies, howell jolly body, basophilic stippling, distemper viral inclusions and blood parasites.
What type of cell is found in dogs that have lead poisoning? basophilic stippling
Howell jolly bodies are seen with what type of disease? Splenic
What is canine plumbism? lead poisoning in dogs
What is on the surface of a RBC when discussing heinz bodies? denatured hb
What are the 2 known toxicitys that can cause heinz bodies? onions and tylenol
What cell is a normal finding in cats (5%)? heinz bodies
What 3 diseases might you seen heinz bodies? Lymphosarcoma, DM (Cats) and Hyerthyroidism
What rare type of cell is seen not only on RBCs but neutrophils and lymphocytes as well and is highly variable in its shape, size and color? Distemper viral inclusions
What are the 4 types of blood parasites? Babesia, mycoplasma haemofelia, haemobartonella canis, and cytauxzoon felis.
What inclusion body can you assume will always cause hemolysis as well as anemia? rbc parasites
What causes babesia? ticks
What 6 species are affected by babesia? cats, dogs, horses, goats, cows, and sheep.
What inclusion body is often confused with stain precipitant? RBC parasite
On what part of the slide will one find babesia? feathered edge
What type of rbc parasite resembles a paired teardrop or ring? babesia
What type of rbc parasite has rods/spheres on the peripheral of the cell? mycoplasma haemofelis
What rare rbc parasite is described as branches of rods/spheres across the cell s periphery? haemobartonella canis
What causes haemobartonella canis? fleas
What type of rare rbc parasite resembles a small ring or safety pin and is fatal to cats? cytauxzoon felis
What causes cytauxzoon felis? ticks
What type of rbc parasite is also seen in macrophages and lymphocytes and causes fatal disease in cats? cytauxzoon felis
Created by: fadedfaithless