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VET1200 Midterm


The system that consists of glands and hormones endocrine
the principal components of cytoplasm are cytoskeleton, organelles, inclusions, and cytosol
what divides the ventral body cavity into the cranial thoracic cavity and caudal abdominal cavity the diaphragm
the dynamic equilibrium in the body homeostasis
a plane that divides the body into cranial and caudal parts that are not necessarily equal transverse
what three structures are found in all mammalian cells cytoplasm, nucleus, and cell membrane
The entire body is made up of ___ basic tissue types. 4
Ribosomes produce proteins
an example of a macroscopic anatomic part is muscles
a plane that is perpendicular to the sagittal and transverse plane dorsal
examples of ligands neurotransmitters and hormones
plantar surface located distal to the tarsus on the back of the hind limb
palmar surface located distal to the carpus on the back of the front limb
inflammation of the pleural layers of the abdomen peritonitis
membrane receptors play a vital role in cell to cell recognition or contact signaling
directional terms for up and down dorsal and ventral
golgi aparatus modifies, packages, and distributes proteins destined for secretion or intracellular use
anatomy the study of the structures of the body
physiology the study of the function of the body
prokaryote no nucleus, small, unicellular
eukaryote has nucleus, can be very large, often multicellular
lipid bilayer arranged with hydrophilic heads on the outside and hydrophobic fatty acid tails on the inside
4 basic tissue types connective, nervous, muscle, epithelial
4 general types of teeth incisors, canines, premolars, molars
nucleotides are composed of sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogen bases
5 nitrogen bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, uracil
total magnification multiply the power of the eyepiece by the lens
base bottom of the microscope
head or body tube supports the oculars and the nosepiece
arm portion that connects base to head
stage platform where the slide lies during examination
coarse adjustment make large adjustments
fine adjustment fine tune focusing
condenser controls how much light is avaliable
DNA nitrogen bases a/t g/c
RNA nitrogen bases a/u g/c
acids release___ in solutions and bases release ___ hydrogen ions; hydroxyl ions
the somatic cell activity is actively dividing during mitotic phase
mutagens certain chemicals, some viruses, ionizing radiation
the process of building new protein using the information of the mRNA molecule translation
neutral solution has a pH of 7
the end of telophase is marked by cytokinesis
exocytosis of waste products is called excretion
requires energy expenditure active transport
growth 1, synthesis, and growth 2 are subgroups of interphase
passive membrane process with movement of molecules from a higher concentration to a lower one diffusion
movement of molecules through the cell membrane with the assistance of and integral protein facilitated diffusion
passive movement of water osmosis
isotonic solution intracellular and extracellular fluid are equal
hypotonic solution excessive intracellular fluid will cause the cell to burst
hypertonic extracellular fluid is more concentrated will cause the cell to shrink
passive membrane process when the pressure on one side is greater than the other, hydrostatic pressure filtration
water drinking pinocytosis
engulfing solid material phagocytosis
transporting large particles into the cell by means of pinocytosis and phagocytosis endocytosis
transporting large particles out of the cell using the E.R. and golgi body exocytosis
reproductive/sex cells divide by the process meiosis
somatic/body cells divide by the process mitosis
DNA to RNA to protein in the nucleus transcription
somatic cells 2x23 chromosomes, diploid, body cells
reproductive cells 1x23 chromosomes, haploid, sex cells
period between cell divisions interphase
intensive metbolic activity growth 1 phase
dna replication occurs synthetic phase
synthesis of enzymes and proteins growth 2 phase
cell division miotic phase
chromatin strands condense to form chromosomes prophase
chromosomes line up in the center of the spindle metaphase
chromatids are pulled apart by spindle fibers to form duplicate set of chromosomes anaphase
chromatin begins to unravel at the poles of the cell, nuclear envelope appears telophase
marks the end of telophase cytokinesis
control the division of cells cyclin and cyclin dependent kinases
DNA to RNA in the cytoplasm translation
DNA to DNA in the nucleus replication
DNA tells the stem cell what to be cell differentiation
a piece of dna that directs the production of a protein gene
cover the body and form glands epithelial
faces the lumen or outside of an organ apical surface
faces the basal lamina and blood vessels basal surface
cellar attachments/cellular junctions tight, desmosomes, gap junctions
fusion of the outermost layers of the plasma membrane tight junction
a strong welded plaque or thickening desmosome
linked by tubular channel proteins called connexons gap junctions
one layer of cells simple
two layers of cells stratified
cells that are flat in shapeq squamous
cells that are cube like cubodial
cells that are column like columnar
appears to have two layers but truly only has one pseudostratified
shape at transition/able to stretch or change shape transitional
unicellular, exocrine gland, columnar, produce mucus, ductless goblet cell
watery with a high concentraiton of enzymes serous secretions
thick, viscous, made of glycoproteins mucous secretions
release secretions via exocytosis merocrine gland
store secretions and release the top part of the cell apocrine
store secretions and release entire cells holocrine
specialized types of connective tissue blood, bone, and catilage
strong thick bands of collagen collagenous fibers
thin, delicate, branched networks of collagen reticular fibers
branched networks of elastin elastic fibers
involved in production and maintenance of the matrix fixed cells
involved in the protection and repair wandering cells
intitate the inflammatory response mast cells
produce antibodies in blood lymphocyte
fibers and cells suspended in a thick translucent ground substance areolar loose connective tissue
network of thin reticular fibers reticular loose connective tissue
acts as energy store house and thermal insulator adipose loose connective tissue
tightly packed parallel collagen fibers, make up tendons and ligaments dense regular fibrous connective tissue
thick bundles of collagen fibers that are interwoven to form a sheet dense irregular connective tissue
primarily composed of elastic fibers elastic connective tissue
contains ground substance plasma with a fibrous component protein(albumin, globulin, fibrinogen) 55% plasma, 45% formed elements blood
erythrocytes red blood cells
leukocytes white blood cells
thrombocytes platelets
matrix combination of organic collagen fibers and inorganic calcium salts bone
found in joints and in the ear, nose and vocal cords cartilage
most common type of cartilage found in the body hyaline cartilage
usually found merged with hyaline cartilage and dense connective tissue fibro cartilage
flexible, contains elastic fibers elastic cartilage
3 types of muscle tissues skeletal, cardiac, smooth
moves bone under conscious nervous system control; striated skeletal muscle
maintains heart function automatically; striated cardiac muscle
found in the digestive tract and urinary bladder under automatic control; nonstriated smooth muscle
found in the brain, spinal cord, and perpheral nerves nervous tissue
2 types of nervous tissue nerouns and supporting neuroglial cells
toward the brain sensory functions
away from the brain motor functions
line organs with connection to the outside environment(mouth, intestines) mucous membrane
line walls and cover organs of body cavities (thorax) serous membrane
integument, composed of dermis and epidermis cutaneous membrane
line the cavities of joints synovial membrane
removal of a small piece of tissue biopsy
microscopic study of disease in tissues histopathology
4 signs of inflammation redness, swelling, heat, pain
edges of the wound held in close apposition first intention healing
edges of the wound are seperated and granulation tissue is allowed to form second intention healing
contaminated wound left open to be later closed by first intention third intention healing
histamine and heparin are released by mast cells
spaces in areolar tissue becoming filled with an excess amount of body fluid from a pathologic insult edema
type of tissue that is most abundant by weight in the body connective
carbohydrates, lipds, and protein make__ ATP
substance derived from food necessary for carrying out out normal body functions nutrient
amount of energy that can be acquired from a nutrient molecule kilocalorie (Calorie)
6 essential nutrients water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals
nutrient that can't be made by the body essential
functions of water lubricant for body tissues, transport medium, chemical reactant in digestion, temperature regulation
most vital requirement for the body oxygen
obtained by ingesting food, drinking, and oxidizing proteins, fats, and carbohydrates water
the loss of electron(s) to another molecule oxidation
the gain of electron(s)from another molecule reduction
to form or breakdown ATP metabolism
3 carbohydrate groups sugar, starches, cellulose
monosaccharides and discharrides that come from fruits, honey, milk; storage carb for animals sugar
polysaccharides that come from grains and root vegetables; storage carb for plants starches
polysaccharides found in most vegetables; animals can't digest cellulose
soluble in other lipids and organic solvents lipids
4 categories of lipids neutral fats, phospholipds, steroids, other (vitamins, eicosanoids, and lipoproteins)
composed of glycerol and fatty acids; also known as triglycerides; aid in absorption, insulation, and cushion neutral fats
type of lipid with a single bond between carbon atoms saturated neutral fat
type of lipid with one or more double bonds between carbons unsaturated neutral fat; monounsaturated; polyunsaturated
modified triglycerides derived from the plant cell membrane; phosphorous group attached to the glycerol phospholipid
composed of 4 flat interlocking rings of hydrocarbons; sex hormones and cholesterol steroids
maintains the fluidity and rigidity of the plasma membrane cholesterol
manufactures in the liver cholesterol
fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, K; regulatory moles derived from arachadonic acid; important in inflammatory process and blood clotting other lipid substances
primary structure material of animal body; regulate body functions; transport O2; aid in body movement protein
composed of amino acids structural proteins
organic amino acid group carboxyl
number of amino acids 20 or 22
forms between acid group of one amino acid and basic group of the other peptide bond
more then ten amino acids bonded together polypeptide bond
body is incorporating more protein into tissues than it is using to make energy positive nitrogen balance
when protein breakdown exceeds the amount of protein being incorporated into tissues negative nitrogen balance
percentage of absorbable protein that is available for productive body functions biological value
do not produce energy; function as co-enzymes or parts of co-enzymes or regulatory molecules vitamins
absorbed through GI tract when water is absorbed; excesses excreted in urine vitamins B & C
bind to ingested lipids before they are absorbed with the ingesta; stored for long times in tissues vitamins A, D, E, & K
inorganic substances, macrominerals(Ca, K, Na) Microminerals( I, Fe) and trace elements(fluorine) minerals
body needs more of these minerals macrominerals
body needs less of these minerals microminerals
breaks down organic matter to harvest energy in cellular respiration; food to ATP catabolism
uses energy to construct components of cells; ATP to ADP anabolism
energy molecule that contains more phosphate and produces more energy adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
energy molecule that contains less phosphate and produces less energy adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
chemical reactions that happen in living organisms for maintaining their life metabolism
digestion in the lumen of the GI tract stage 1 of catabolism
anaerobic respiration in the cytoplasm of cells stage 2 of catabolism
aerobic respiration in the mitochondria of cells stage 3 of catabolism
a protein molecule and a catalyst together make an enzyme
a substrate and an enzyme together make a product
3 stages of carbohydrate metabolism glycolysis, TCA/Krebs cycle, electron transport chain
anaerobic; step one of carbohydrate metabolic process; occurs in cytoplasm; makes 2 ATP glycolysis
step 2 of carbohydrate metabolic process that occurs in the mitochondria; makes 2 ATP krebs cycle
aerobic; step 3 of carbohydrate metabolic process; occurs in mitochondria; makes 32 ATP electron transport chain
if insufficient oxygen is present during carbohydrate metabolism ___ is produced lactic acid
contain more chemical energy than carbs or proteins; liver is primary controller; makes 148 ATP lipid metabolism
structural, regulatory, contractile, transport, storage, protective, membrane protein types
amine from the carbon chain becomes ammonia and is converted to urea in the liver and excreted deamination
when amine group is transferred to another carbon chain to form a different amino acid transamination
amino acid catabolism occurring in most tissues; can undergo 2 processes in the mitochondria protein metabolism
contains the hereditary property of the cell nucleus
power house of the cell mitochondria
used for movement of cell flagella and cilia
inner substance of the cell cytoplasm
composed of microfilaments, intermediate fibers, and microtubles; gives structure and support to cell cytoskeleton
tiny organs with in the cell organelles
important site for protein synthesis ribosomes
has ribosomes on the surface; is involved in production of protein rough E.R
involved in synthesis and storage of lipids smooth E.R
breakdown nutrient molecules; shredder lysosome
controls detoxification of various molecules peroxisomes
any droplets in the cell other than the previous structure inclusions
help organize the spindle fibers during cell division centrioles
Created by: chop



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