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Bacteria 2301

Bacteria notes for Canine and Feline Management

Bacteria was first observed by _____ Leeuwenhoek in 1676 with a single lens microscope
What is bacteria? a single-celled microorganism with a variety of shapes
What shapes does bacteria have? Spheres, rods, spirals
Bacteria are also known as ______ because they don't contain a _____. Prokaryotes, nucleus.
What is a membrane bound organelle? Genetic material contained in a single circular chromosome in the cytoplasm of the cell (nucleoid)
What is seen in a prokaryotic? cell wall (+/- capsule), cell/plasma membrane, nucleoid, cytoplasm, ribosomes, +/-: pili/plasmids/flagellum, few have endospores
What is seen in a eukaryotic? Cell/plasma membrane, nucleus, nucleolus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, vacuoles, lysosomes
Bacterial cells outnumber the other cells in our bodies by _____ 10:1
Most common diseases caused by bacteria Respiratory diseases
Bacteria morphology: Spherical Cocci/coccus
Bacteria morphology: Rod Bacilli/Bacillus
What does the cell membrane do? Holds nutrients, proteins, and other components of cytoplasm within the cell
Where is the genetic material kept? In the nucleoid
What do you treat infections with? Antibiotics
What is bacteria also used for? Agricultural processes
What industrial processes is bacteria used for? Waste treatment, cheese and yogurt production, manifacture of antibiotics and other chemicals
What does the cell wall surround? The cell membrane
What is essential to survival of many bacteria? Cell wall
_____ kills bacteria by ____________ Penicillin, inhibiting a step in synthesis of cell wall
How many types of cell wall are there? 2 types
What do you call a thick cell wall with many layers? Gram positive
What do you call a thin cell wall? Gram negative
What does the difference in the thickness of the cell wall affect? Antibiotic susceptibility
Gram staining is named after _______ Hans Christian Gram, a Danish bacteriologist
What stain stains both gram negative and positive bacteria? Crystal violet
What fixes the stain in gram positive bacteria? Gram's iodine
What washes the stain from gram negative bacteria? Ethanol or acetone
_______ is a counterstain that will re-stain gram negative bacteria while not interfering with the previous stain in gram positive bacteria Safranin
_______ is a network of polysaccharides Glycocalyx
The glycocalyx surrounds the ____ _____ Cell wall
____ ____ is a disorganized extra-cellular polymer Slime layer
_____ is highly structured Capsule
What does the Glycocalyx do? Protects from engulfment by macrophages, act as antigens, cell recognition, allows attachment to inert surfaces (teeth, rocks, etc...)
What makes up the endospores? A central core of cytoplasm containing DNA and ribosomes surrounded by cortex layer
What protects the endospores? An impermeable and rigid coat
The endospore contains the genera of what gram positive bacteria? Bacillus and clostridium
Endospores can survive UV light, gamma radiation, detergents/disinfectants, heat, pressure, drying, exposures to vacuum/radiation in space
How do you get sick from Bacillus Anthracis endospores? Inhalation
How do you get sick from Clostridium tetani? Contamination of deep puncture wounds
What does contamination from Clostridium tetani cause? Tetanus
What is a pathogen? Bacteria or other agent that forms a parasitic association with other organisms
What is a major cause of human and animal death and disease? Pathogens
Why are pathogens important in agriculture? Johne's disease, mastitis, salmonella, anthrax
What pathogens cause disease? Rickettsia and Chlamydia
Pathogens are highly opportunistic in ______ Primarily in immune suppressed hosts
What treatment is used for pathogens? Antibiotics: bacteriocidal, bacteriostatic
How do you prevent pathogens? Setilizing skin prior to needle puncture, proper care of indwelling catheters, sterilization of surgical and dental instruments
Name examples of disinfectants that kill bacteria/pathogens on surfaces Bleach, roccal, chlorhexidine
Bacteria grow to a ____ ____ Fixed size
How does bacteria reproduce? Asexual reproduction; binary fission
Bacteria can double every _____ under rapid optimal conditions 9.8 minutes
How many identical clone daughter cells form? 2 identical clone daughter cells
Bacteria is cultured with ___ or ____ Solid or liquid media
A solid culture consists of what? Agar plate, used to isolate pure cultures of a bacterial strain
A liquid culture consists of what? Measurement of growth (large volumes are needed)
A selective media consists of what? Specific nutrients added or deficient or anitbiotics added, used to ID specific organisms
Created by: ctriner



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