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Ecosystems Midterm

Terms, People, Events, Species, and Legislature

QuestionAnswer
Ecosystem Biotic and abiotic components in any given area with a defined boundary. (Pond, lake, field, forest)
Sustainable to sustain the patterns and process of ecosystems for the benefit of future generations, while providing goods and services for each generation.
Bruntland Report 1987 UN's World Commission on Environment and Development Report defined sustainable development.
Stakeholders the individuals and groups affected by the policy
Northwest Forest Plan Spotted Owl: To work together to create a sustainable ecosystem that protected all of the wildlife while still provided for human and economic necessities.
Adaptive Management Multistep process- establish goals, create criteria, implement the plan, monitor the plan, evaluate the results, adjust the plan to make it better.
Metropolitan Area The densely populated urban core and the less populated surrounding region
Factors influencing urban development cities were trade centers and people needed to walk to work.
Romantic or Arcadian Movement fostered an interest in family and countryside Thoreau- Industrial revolution made the cities gross
Andrew Jackson Downing Great American Landscape Artist idealized country life in his writing.
Urban Pollution Waste of all sorts was a problem- human, horse, bird. The search for clean water was a very large problem as well.
Cesspool and privy vault system = systems for human waste treatment, night soil was dumped in water or farms
miasma impure air from decaying material
Edwin Chadwick English Lawyer who promoted the idea that disease is related to the lack of sanitation
Pasteur and Koch scientists who worked to improve knowledge of disease. flies were found to be carriers.
Sand Filtration and Chlorine reduced disease by the 1920s
St. Louis vs. Chicago Sanitary District St. Lois took Chicago to court because Chicago was polluting all of the water upstream to it was unusable by the time it got to St. Lois
Primary Sewage treatment mechanical removal of solids
Secondary treatment Elminates BOD (biological oxygen demand)with activated sludge or trickle filter technique
Tertiary treatment removes nutrients
Solid Waste Disposal (1900) Disposal= hogs, water, and landfills= rats and roaches
City Beautiful progressive reform and civic improvement sought to improve the urban environment
Horace McFarland Head of American Civic Association- pushed civic improvement
Myra Loyd Dock A writer who compared Harrisburg with the less developed cities on the Rhine in terms of filth
George Waring Jr. NYC sanitary engineer, developed the white wings to clean up the city. = recycling
Sanitary Landfill Ashes alternated with organic material
Air inversion Cold air trapped below warm air trapping the pollutants in a valley. = harsh smog and haze
Clean Air Act of 1970 Established air quality standards and also later established emission standards for automobiles and power plants.
Urban Heat Island The urban areas are warmer than forested or rural ares because of human activities (heating the homes and such)
energy budget= (l-r)S=H+(lambda)E+G r= reflected radiation (l-r)=absorbed radiation S=Solar Radiation H=Convection (Sensible Heat loss) (Lambda)= latent heat of vaporization E= Latent heat exchange G= Conduction to the ground
Bowden Ration sendible heat loss/ latent heat loss
macropores large pores (in soil they hold water and oxygen)
Bulk Density Urban soils are very compacted (have a high bulk density) and it limits the soils ability to absorb water
hydrophobic repels water (in soils it is due to the deposition of hydrocarbons)
Impervious surfaces Roads, parking lots, roofs, that changes the fate of water. Storm drains push water straight into streams (it is not detained in the soil at all)= more flash floods.
BMP Best Management Practices
Detention Storage stores water in collection basins
Bio-retention wetland areas with plants and microbes absorb and break down toxic substances
Street Tree Commissions The people who are responsible for the planting and care of the street trees
Street tree considerations Plant small trees in narrow tree lawns where they will require less water (callery peary and flowering Crab) -Disease free, pest free, pollutant tolerant (Norway Maple, little-leaf linden)
What trees should not be planted? Fast growing trees- Silver Maples, poplars, aspens- they break easily due to the weather
What trees are good for growing grass? What trees are bad for that? Honey Locust = good. Norway Maple=bad
Remnant forests patches of natural forest that survive in urban areas but are subject to frequent disturbances like pollution, fire,and trampling.
Value of Street trees Micro-climate modifications (latent heat loss, shade, reduce wind speeds, reduce runoff, reduce air pollutants, reduce noise
William Kent and Lancelot "Capability" Brown 18th Century English tastes- country estates created by these two people
Ecological Costs of the lawn Requires large amounts of energy to maintain a lawn, need to apply large quantities of herbicides and pesticides,
Energy Efficient House South facing, mid-slope, evergreens to the west to reduce winter wind and cooling, deciduous in the shouth provides shade
Heat Transfer equation= q=U*A*(deltaT) q= heat loss due to conduction, convection, and radiation U= coefficient of transmittance A= area in ft squared (delta T)= dif. between inside and outside temp
What labor saving devices in the early 1800s improved the grain harvest? Hand and horse drawn implements (sickle, cradle scythe, and horse drawn reaper)
Problems of overproduction of crops? high production is beneficial during wartime= more collateral for loans (debt increases) -prices drop during slows in demand =bankruptcies
Farm Service Agency government agency in the USDA that assists farmers in numerous ways. -Commodity Credit Corporation- created to stabilize and support farm incomes and prices. = Loans with crops as collateral. -If prices fall below target prices FSA makes up the dif.
Federal Agricultural Improvement and Reform (FAIR) Act of 1996 1. Eliminate acreage control on crops 2. eliminate store food surpluses 3. reduce distorting price support systems
Edward Faulkner Wrote Plowman's Folly- pointed out harmful effects of plowing (high erosion rates)
Conservation Tillage Strives to keep most plant material on the surfaces (Chisel plow and no-till) = Less soil erosion, cheaper labor, fewer trips. Increases herbicide and fertilizer.
Soil Organic Matter (SOM) The amount of living and dead organic matter in the soil= best indicators of soil quality and fertility
Value of SOM? Microbial energy source, humus colloids have a negative charged edge that attracts positive charged nutrients=cation exchange capacity of the soil
More SOM value? Source of nutrients, increases absorb-able water for plants, promotes clumping, increases yield for each 1% carbon
volatilization because it is a gas it escapes into the atmosphere
nitrification bacteria change NH4 into NO3 that can be leached
denitrification changes NO3 into N2 gas and N20 runoff
hypoxia nitrogen runoff stimulates algae growth, bacteria feed on the algae and use up the oxygen.
Pest Resurgence pesticides destroy natural predators, pest recover more quickly
Characteristics of Weeds 1. produce lots of seeds 2. effective seed dispersal through space 3. large amount of seeds 4. plastic growth and seed production patterns
10 Worst Weeds Goosefoot, Redroot pigweed, Green foxtail, common ragweed, creeping buttercup, curley dock, canada thistle, field bindweed, quack grass, yellow nuts edge,
Landscape Ecology Studies the movement of organisms, nutrients, and energy between different landscape units
Riparian Ecosystem An ecotonal area where terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems meet.
Riparian Buffer Strips act as sinks for nutrients from runoff and groundwater
Vegetated Buffer strips Removes sediment in overland flow and nutrients in ground water
Agricultural security areas Farmers owning more than 500 acres of land can petition for tax relief, exemption from nuisance ordinances
Agricultural protection zoning (APZ) zoning is established by township to protect farmland on prime soils by limiting percentage of hte amount of land that can be developed if it were to be sold.
Agricultural Conservation Easement gov't purchase development rights from the farmer on the conditions that the farm with be used for agricultural production forever. Very profitable for the farmer.
Created by: iafrateb