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Anthro Exam Two

Heterozygous 2 DISSIMLAR alleles of a gene
Homozygous 2 SIMILAR alleles of a gene
Stabilizing Selection the frequencies of 2 or more alleles of a gene remain constant from generation to generation
Directional Selection Long term selection of the same trait. After several generations of selection, gene frequencies will change.
Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms Geographic barriers, habitat isolation, seasonal/temporal, behavioral, morphological, Hybrid inviability/infertility
Biological Species Gene flow maintains similarities within species; members of a species evolve as a unit.
Ecological Species Emphasizes the role of selection; interbreed but maintain species boundaries; or don't interbreed but maintain species coherence
Allopatric Speciation Geographic separation & directional selection; A gene barrier is present; Different selective pressures (competition, environment, predation)
Punctuated Equilibrium Species remain unchanged and then undergo rapid, major change due to major environmental changes.
4 Forces of Evolution Natural Selection, Mutation, Gene flow, Genetic Drift
Natural Selection only mechanism that produces adaptations
Genetic Drift random changes in allele frequencies
Gene Flow Transferring genes between populations
Adaptive Radiation A species diversifies to fill available niches;
Taphonomy The study of processes that affect the remains of dead animals
Homologies The similarities used to assign organims to the same taxon
Homology Ex: Mammals share certain mammary glands that set them apart from other taxa such as birds, reptiles, amphibians, and insects.
Analogies The similarities in how species experience certain selective forces and how they adapt to them.
Analogy Ex: Like fish, porpoises (who are mammals) have fins and are hairless and streamlined for efficient locomotion.
4 Categories of Human Adaptive Responses Genetic change, developmental adjustment, acclimatization, cultural practices
Phenotypic Adaptation Type of developmental adjustment. Adaptive biological changes that occur during the individuals lifetime, made possible by biological plasticity.
Biological Plasticity Our ability to change in response to the environments we encounter as we grow
Bergman's Rule Populations with less massive individuals are more often found near the equator; those with greater bulk are more often found further from the equator.
Allen's Rule Populations found living near the equator tend to have longer limbs than those that live farther from the equator.
Evolutionary Hypotheses for Skin Color Cancer, Vitamin D, Folate
Biological Responses to human adaptation & variation Developmental adjustment, acclimatization, and cultural practices
Created by: sandyleeb