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Veggie Exam 2

beneficial Insects prey on or parasitize pests
predators attacks kills and feeds on prey
parasitoid lay their eggs on or within their prey. Once eggs hatch the host dies
parasite organism that lives at the expense of another organism but usually does not kill its host
Syrphid fly larvae feed on aphids and other soft bodied insects. Larvae move along plant surfaces eating aphids
Green lacewing larvae generalist predator. Eat aphids, mealy bugs, thrips, whiteflies, and small caterpillars. Commercially available.
Preying Mantid generalist predator. eat good bugs and bad bugs. Have raptorial front legs. Commercially available.
Lady beetle prey on aphids and other homopterans. Can be important in every crop with aphid pests. Both adults and larvae feed on aphids
Assassin Bugs (Wheel Bug) predaceous on a wide variety of small to medium sized insects including caterpillars, leaf hoppers, and aphids. Short spearlike proboscus indicates a predaceous insect with piercing-sucking mouthparts
Crab Spiders do not build webs to catch prey, but are hunters and ambushers. Can be important in controlling insect pests such as beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, and aphids
Jumping spider do not build webs but instead move about and hunt their prey on soil or plants. Can jump 75-80x the length of its body.
Predatory mite popular with greenhouse growers. Predatory mites are an important biological control of the spider mite. Kill phytophagus mites. Commercially available
Predaceous Ground Beetles adults and larvae feed on soil dwelling insect larvae and pupae and other invertebrates such as snails and slugs
tiger beetle feed on a wide range of prey including ants, beetles, caterpillars, grasshoppers nymphs
Baconid wasp feeds primarily on aphids. Also preys on tobacco and tomato hornworm. The female wasp lays one egg in an aphid. When the egg hatches, the larva feed on the inside of the aphid.
Ichneumonid Wasp generally beneficial and act as parasites. Female injects eggs into hosts like bark beetle larvae, flies, and caterpillars
Solanaceae Nightshade family. contains potato, eggplant, tomato, and peppers. Many members of this family are poisonous
Bell group large, blocky, and blunt. Color is green and red. Red has more vitamin C and A. Reds are very expensive. This group in nonpungent (they are sweet)
Anaheim Chile Group all are pungent. Cayennes are a subgroup of these. Start out green and get red as they mature
Jalepeno Group fruit are small with a round cylindrical shape. Very pungent and are sold fresh.
Cherry Group can be pungent or non-pungent. Small rounded fruits
Wax Group pungent or non-pungent. Sometimes are called banana peppers
Capsicum Frutescens Tabasco peppers. are the most pungent peppers grown commercially in North America. Immature fruits are pickled while mature red fruits are used in hot pepper sauces
Capsicum Chinese Habanero. very hot peppers that can cause you to pass out.
hotness in peppers determined by the amount of capsaicin.
capsaicin tissue that holds the seed (placental tissue). this compound is very stable.
Scoleville test human subjects taste a pepper sample and record it's heat level. Pepper hotness is measure in scoleville units. Habaneros are 210,000 scoleville units. But Ghost peppers are over a million
How to get ride of pepper burning sensation milk, yogurt, or any dairy product. Casein protein reacts with the capsaicin.
Pepper Production warm season crop. Full sunlight (atleast 8 hours a day). Fertile, well drained soil. Tillage is crucial for adequate plant growth. Need a clean seed bed. Soil compaction is a problem in areas that are tilled a lot.
bell pepper row spacing 12-18" x 36-42"
Pepper transplants best to use transplants. No direct seed. Grow 5-6 weeks before transplanting
How to grow your own transplant Greenhouse or hoophouse. Grow in styrofoam or plastic cell packs. Use commercial potting mix (comes with fertilizer). Should germinate within 7 days.
harden off technique used to slow growth of transplants. prepares them for the real world. 1. Gradually reduce H20 (wilt) 2. Place outside (wind/lower temps) 3. Withhold N fertilizer during the final 2 weeks of transplant production GENE ACTIVATED
Fertilization of peppers All all P and K and 1/2 N at preplant. One time sidedress as the flower buds appear (remainder of N)
Soil Solarization way to clean up the soil. 1. Till Soil 2. Wet Soil 3. Lay clear plastic 4-6 weeks over soil in august to september. The intense heat kills insects, soil fungi, bacteria, nematodes, and many weeds. You can do this about every 3 years
Pepper Planting Dates Spring: April 15 (earliest) - May 1 (preferable)- June 1 (latest) Fall: July 15
Peppers are interdeminate means they will produce pepper for a long period of time
Flower Drop (peppers) physiological problem. Too Hot, temperature stress. Greater than 94 and less than 50. Can also be caused by the tarnished plant bug. They are flower suckers and they cause the flowers to drop
Blossom End Rot (peppers) calcium deficiency. Problem of water management. any condition that reduces the root ability to absorb water. BER is most common during prolonged dry periods followed by heavy frequent rain
Blossom End Rot control in peppers maintain uniform soil moisture through irrigation. Correct pH. Foliar apply CaNO3 or CaCl at a rate of 3-4 punds per 100 gallons of water.
Sunscald non infectious problem caused by sunlight and high temps. Caused by premature foliage loss. Basically it is a plant sunburn.
Bacterial Leafspot most serious disease of PEPPERS. causes sports on both the foliage and the fruit. Most leaves turn yellow and drop. Can kill the entire pepper plant. Control with cover spray.
Tomato spotted wilt virus transmitted but immature thrips. Control using resistant varieties. Aluminum colored plastic mulch or aluminum foil under plants, can prevent
Tobacco mosaic virus mechanically transmitted by an infected plant or tobacco products. From smoking a cigarette, cigar or dip.
Aphid transmitted viruses cucumber mosaic, tobacco etch, potato virus, watermelon mosaic
Cercospora Leafspot foliar fungal disease that makes large oval spots on leaves. use a coverspray
Phytophthoca foliar blight soil borne, reduce splashing, rotate and solarize
Root rots soil borne (rotate, fumigate). Sometime called a sore shin, looks like a bruise on the stem. Generally called a damping off disease. Always occurs early in the season by cool wet soil.
Southern Blight white mold. Comes on late and kills the plant. Very bad when the soil is hot and wet. Best control is rotation and solarization
cutworms active only at night. Remain buried during the day. Feed at the soil surface. Attack small transplants. Spring pest. Control by removing grass and weeds. Tin can method- put coffee can around transplant and press it into the soil
aphids watch for a sudden buildup. Normally they will crash, meaning they get a fungus among themselves that will wipe them out. Transmit viruses
Corn earworm control using BT organic control that controls caterpillars. Doesn't affect humans because it is pH related. Caterpillars have a high pH stomach and it causes a hole in their stomach
Spider mites feed on many vegetables (tomatoes) look for bronzing of leaves. They like "dirty plants" and hot weather
tomato history -native of tropical regions of South America -first domesticated in Mexico -Cortez took seed to Europe in 1519. thought was POISON -introduced back to US from Europe in 18th century (1700s) after gained popularity in cooking came to US
George Washington Carver - tomatoes grew and recommended it for poor in Alabama cause diets were low in vitamins
tomato today US #1 in fresh market tomatoes -tomato fruit is a “fleshy berry” (lawsuit) NOT A VEGGIE.
perfect flower male and female, pollinated by themselves through WIND
trust 3-5 flowers in one cluster
yellow flowers • SLOW fruit development: 35-60 days from pollination to fertilization, it’s a long process, transplants: 60-90 days
breaker stage less than or equal to 10% showing, tannish-yellow, pink or red on surface (pink on blossom end) o The bottom breaks color, then mature or ripen up the stalk, can pull of stack then
Fresh Market Tomatoes large round variety, indeterminate and determinate
cherry tomatoes determinates
grape tomatoes smallest, elongated cherry tomatoes
tomatillo husk tomato, green, used in sauces
Roma tomatoes good in cooking
intederminate tomatoes means stops growing in height
Tomato nutrition • Lycopene: red pigment/antioxidant • Vitamin A • Ascorbic acid: vitamin C • Potassium (K)
tomato production -warm season, very sensitive to cold -growth daytime: 77-86 degrees - night: 60-68 degrees - halts at 95 degrees cause too HOT -cold damage: less than 50 degrees which may kill plants
tomato pollination -pollination at night: greater than 72 degrees WON’T MAKE FRUIT!(more critical or optimum range is 59-68 degrees)
tomato planting dates Central Alabama: April 15th 60-90 days from transplant to mature fruit
tomato soil conditions -well drained soil, pH 5.8-6.5 -rotate every 2-3 weeks -spacing 2’ by 6 ft
tomato fertilization Lime and Phosphorus: based on soil test. Apply before you plant. Apply 50% N and K at preplant. sidedress remaining 50% of N and K when tomato begins to flower
total fertilizer amounts tomato N- 240lbs/acre "heavy feeders"
staking and tying required for tomatoes, or caging. place stakes at every other plant. use tomato twine (plastic type) and a 1/2" PVC pipe.
Tomato pruning helps maintaing balance, called suckering. Best method: remove all suckers up to the one nest to the first flower cluster. 1. First flower cluster: leave sucker below it 2. Remove all others below this (just break off the little branch)
fruit cracking 1. radial: most common on ripening fruit. often during rainy periods when temps are high. Rains follow a long dry period. 2. Concentric: green fruit fully exposed to sun. Control: maintain uniform water supply
Puffiness tomatoes. outer wall is normal but tomato is hollow inside. one of the locular cavities usually empty. High N and low light causes this
Catfacing cool weather at blossom time causes the fruit to pucker and have deep crevices. tomato
Bacterial leafspot (tomatoes) MOST SERIOUS DISEASE. Raise pumps (small warts) on all fruit. Bacterial disease. Spread by wind driven rain into stomates of foliage or wounds or insect punctures on fruit. Can also spread mechanically. Wet windy weather with relatively high temps
Tomato spotted wilt virus vectored by thrips. Bronze discoloration of young leaves. Plants may be stunted. Green fruit may show faint, yellowish or brown concentric rings. There is not way to control this once the plant has it. Plant resistant varieties or use reflective mulch.
Early Blight fungal disease of tomatoes. Most common disease of tomatoes. Spots expand beyond 1.4 in becoming zonate with a yellow halo. Spread by rain splashing. Rainy humid weather above 75F. spray with a protectant coverspray
Late blight cool nights. Affects fall tomatoes, it will take the out quick. Use cover sprays to protects
frass insect feces
stink bugs o Cant kill if brown o Damage: sunken areas on shoulders o Control: sprays like natural pyrethrums: chrysanthemum o Late summer/fall is worse, when its HOT
leaffooted bugs o Control: sprays
Spider Mites o Like dry plants o Avoid sevin dust o Bronzing of leaves o Hot/dry is BAD o Control: miticides
Tomato Hornworm o Control: pick off, BT o Feed on leaves and foliage only
Mature Green for fried green tomatoes, and for shipping purposes o Cut crosswise and if knife does not cut any seeds then it is mature green
Vine Ripe breaker stage—ripe from then on
Mature Green Storage 55-70 degrees, 1-3 weeks
Pink Storage 50-60 degrees, 5-10 days
Ripe Storage 50 degrees, 4-7 days * UNDER 50 DEGREES WILL RUPTURE**
Created by: asculpepper



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