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Cells are Basic units of life
cell theory 1.All living things are composed of cells 2.cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things 3. New cells are produced from existing cells.
Nucleus a large membrane enclosed structure that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA.
Eukaryotes cells that contain nuclei
Prokaryotes cells that do not contain nuclei
Organelles structures that act as if they are specialized organs
cytoplasm portion of the cell outside the nucleus
Nuclear envelope The nucleus is surrounded by Nuclear Envelope. composed of two membranes
Chromatin consists of DNA bound to protein, spread throughout the nucleus
Chromosomes when a cell dividies, however, chromatin condenses to form chromosomes.Contain the genetic info that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
nucleolus Nuclie that contains a small dnese region. is the place where assembly of ribosomes begins
Ribosomes proteins are assembled on ribosomes. Particles of RNA and protein found throughtout the cytoplasm
Endoplasmic Reticulum The site where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials that are exported from the cell
Golgi apparatus Proteins produced in the rough ER move next into an organelle called the GOlgi apparatus. Function of it is to modify, sort, and package proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage in the cell or scretion out side the cell
Lysosomes small organelles filled with enzymes
vacuoles Stores materials such as water,salt proteins, carbohydrates
mitochondira Organelles that convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
chloroplasts organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis
Cytoskeleton a network of protein filaments that helps the cell to maintain its shape. Also involved into movement
Centrioles located near the nucleus and help to organize cell division . Not found in plant cells
Cell membrane called the plasma membrane because many cells in the body are in direct contact with the fluid portion of the blood plasma.
Cell wall A strong supporting layer around the membrane produced by cells
Lipid bilayer The composition of nearly all cell membranes is a dounle layered sheet called LIPID BILAYER
concentration mass of solute in a given volume of solution
Diffusion particles tend to move from an area where they are less concentrated
Equilibruim Concentration of the solute is the same throughout the system
Osmosis diffusion of water through a selectively permeanable membrane.
Isotonic Water will tend to move across the membrane until equilibrium is reached. two solutions are isotonic when the concentration of water and sugar is smae on both sides of membrane
Hypertonic "above strength" as compared to the dilute sugar solution
hypotonic "below strength"
Facilitated diffusion Hundreds of different protein channels have been found that allow particular substances to cross different membranes
Active transport 1.needs energy 2.cells must move materials in the opposite direction against a concentration difference.
Endocytosis Process of taking material into the cell by means of infoldings, or pockets, of the cell membrane
Phagocytosis Extensions of cytoplasm surround a particle and package it within a food vacuole.
Pinocytosis A process that many cells take up liquid from the surrounding environment.
Exocytosis membrane of the vacuole surrounding the material fuses with the cell membrane forcing the contents out of the cell.
Cell specialization Cells throughout an organism can develop in different ways to perform different tasks
Organ Many groups of tissues work with it
Created by: grantjw