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LabPro Urinalysis!


Urine is formed through _______________ filtration, tubular _______________ and ______________. Glomercular; Reabsorbtion and Secretion
Define Pollakiuria Frequent urination
Define Polyuria Increase in urine output
Define Oliguria Decrease in urine output
Define Anuria Lack of urine output
Define Dysuria Difficult urination
What are the 4 methods of urine collection? 1-Free catch/Midstream 2-Manual Expression 3-Catheterization 4-Cystocentesis
What are the 3 advantages to urinalysis? Fast, Cheap and Easy!
What two methods of urine collection are considered to be voided urine samples? Free catch and manual expression
What are the 2 disadvantages of a voided urine sample? Contamination and difficult to get with cats
What type of pressure should be used when expressing the bladder? Gentle and steady pressure
When should you never attempt a manual expression? When there is a possiblity of an obstruction.
A urinary catheter is placed through the _________ to the ___________. Urethra; bladder
What are the 2 advantages of placing a urinary catheter? -Less chance of contamination -Helpful in animals that cant be palpated
What are the 2 disadvantages to placing a urinary catheter? -Can cause trauma to urethral mucosa -Possible contamination
What needle length is used when performing a cystocentesis? 1.5inch
What is considered to be the most sterile way of collecting urine? Cystocentesis
What are the 2 disadvantages to cystocentesis? -Hard to get in obese animals -May cause organ trauma
What is used to clean the area before a cystocentesis? Betadine
Urine should be analyzed with _____ minutes of getting the sample if possible. 60
How long can urine be refrigerated if needed? 6-12 hours
What type of urine samples are normally concentrated? Morning
True or false. If a sample stands at room temperature, you may get false results. True
What are the 5 physical properties of urine? -Color -Clarity -Odor -Specific Gravity -Volume
What are the pigments called that cause normal urine color? Urochromes
What is the normal color of urine? Light yellow to amber
Red urine indicates what? Hematuria
Reddish-brown urine indicates what? Hemoglobin or myoglobin
Dark yellowish-brown urine indicates what? Bilirubinuria
In what species is urine normally colored orange-reddish brown? Rabbits
Cloudy urine indicates an increase in what 5 possible substances? -Crystals -Casts -Bacteria -Cells -Mucus
What 2 species have cloudy urine due to a high content of mucus and calcium carbonate crystals? Horses and rabbits
True or false. Urine odor can be a diagnoses. False.
Strong urine odor suggests _____________ production. Bacteria
What 3 animals have the strongest smelling urine? Male cats, goats and pigs.
What does specific gravity measure? Urine concentration compared to distilled water.
What 3 things are concentrated urine dependent on? The number, molecule size, and weight of urine.
What are the 3 methods for determining specific gravity? Refractometer, Reagent strips, and urinometer
What are the 3 causes of increased SG? Dehydration, Increased water loss, and Decreased water intake
What are the 4 causes of decreased SG? Excessive water intake, kidney disease, pyometra, and drugs
What 3 things influence urine volume? Water intake, Size of animals and Species of animals.
Define Crystalluria. Presence of crystals in the urine
What do crystal depend on for formation? pH
True or false. A urine sample that sits at room temperature will decrease in the number of crystals formed. False
What type of crystal is ammonium magnesium phosphate? Triple Phosphate (Struvite)
What type of Crystal generally appears as coffin lids or rooftops? Struvite
What type of crystal forms in basic to slightly acidic urine? Struvite
A struvite may take a Fernleaf shape if utine has a high concentration of what substance? Ammonia
What type of Crystal generally appears as small squares with invisible X? Calcium oxalate dihydrate
What type of Crystal are commonly seen in small numbers in dogs and horses? Calcium Oxalate dihydrate
What type of Crystal maybe small and dumbbell shaped and can also appear as a slat from a picket fence? Calcium oxalate monohydrate
Calcium Oxalate monohydrate is a key indicator if an animal is experiencing what kind toxicity? Ethylene glycol
What is ethylene glycol? Antifreeze
Ammonium urates are seen most often and what animal? Dalmatian
What type of Crystal appears as yellow brown rosettes or diamond shaped plates and can form in any urine pH? Uric acid crystals
What type of Crystal is described as a thorny apple? Ammonium urate
Certain _____ and _________________ may interfere with chemical testing. Drugs and medications
What are the 8 components on a dipstick? 1-pH 2-Protein 3-Glucose 4-Ketone 5-Bilirubin 6-Urobilinogen 7-Blood 8-Nitrites
What type of pH do plant diets cause? Basic
What type of pH do protein diets cause? Acidic
What are the 4 primary factors that may affect urine pH? -Diet -Fever -Starvation -Drugs
Is protein normal in the urine of an animal? No
What are the 3 ways protein may be lost in the urine? Due to: -Glomerulopathies -Inflammation -Hemorrhage
Is glucose normally found in the urine? No
Are ketones normally found in the urine? No
Ketones are formed from the breakdown of what? Lipids
An excess of what substance can cause CNS depression and acidosis? Ketones
What 2 things cause ketonuria? 1-Starvation 2-Diabetes
What is the pigment made by the liver from dead or dying RBCs? Bilirubin
Is bilirubin normal in the urine? Yes, in small amts.
What animal can conjugate bilirubin in their kidneys? Canine
__________ found in the __________ can be a sign of liver disease, bile duct obstruction, or hemolysis. Bilirubin; feline
What is a compound formed from bilirubin in the GI tract? Urobilinogen
Is it normal for animals to have urobilinogen in their urine? Yes, in small amts.
What are the only ways to record urobilinogen in the urine? Normal or abnormal
Greater than _____ RBCs per field may indicate a problem. ~5
What are the 4 main causes of hematuria? -Trauma -UTI -Calculi -Coagulopathies
What are produced by the bacteria of some infections? Nitrites
The top portion of a centrifuged urine sample is called what? Supernatent
The bottom portion of a centrifuged urine sample is called what? Sediment
How long do you centrifuge a urine sample for? 3-5 minutes
What should be done after the supernatent is poured off of the top? The sediment should be resuspended
How many mls of urine are transferred to a centrifuge tube from the sample? 3-5mls
How much supernatent should be left after being poured off? 0.5ml
How do you resuspend urine sediment? Flick with finger or tap tube
What is used to stain a urine sample? Sedistain
What are the 6 potential elements found in urine sediment? 1-WBCs 2-RBCs 3-Lipid droplets 4-Bacteria 5-Crystals 6-Casts
WBCs in the urine indicate what two types of infection? Kidney or bladder
Are lipid droplets common in the sediment of urine? Yes (Esp in cats)
What are the 2 types of bacteria in urine sediment discussed in class? Rods and cocci
Crystals are made up of ____________. Minerals
The _________ of the urine determines what type of stone might be formed. pH
What are the 3 most common crystal types? -Struvite -Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate -Ammonium urate
Casts are usually what type of shape? Tube shaped
What are the 7 types of casts? 1-Hyaline 2-Granular 3-Waxy 4-Fatty 5-Cellular 6-Mixed 7-Bile Stained
Waht does specific gravity measure? The concentrating ability of the kidneys
How do you measure SG? Refractometer (Not dipstick in animal med)
What is considered to be normal SG in cats? 1.001-1.080
What is considered to be normal SG in dogs? 1.001-1.060
What is an all around normal SG level if no dehydrated is suspected? 1.013-1.030
Define hyposthenuric. Diluted SG (Below 1.008)
Define isosthenuric. Fixed SG (1.008-1.012)
True or false. Isothenuric has the same SG of plasma. True
Created by: fadedfaithless



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