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Ch 15: Endocrine

Endocrine System

QuestionAnswer
__________________ system produces hormones. Endocrine
_________________ system produces neurotransmitters. Nervous
________________ system reacts more slowly to changes but can sustain response longer. Endocrine
______________ system reacts more quickly to changes but cannot sustain prolonged responses. Nervous
How do endocrine glands secrete hormones? Directly into the bloodstream.
True or false. Endocrine glands have ducts. False
What type of glands have ducts for secretion? Exocrine
What are the chemical messengers produced by endocrine glands? Hormones
What are the 2 methods of hormone secretion control? -Negative & Positive Feedback
What type of hormone secretion control is responsible for maintaining equilibrium within the body? Negative feedback system
What type of hormone secretion control is fight or flight considered to be? Positive Feedback
What type of hormone secretion control is responsible for a majority of the body's hormones? Negative Feedback System
What structure is considered to be the puppetmaster of the pituitary gland? Hypothalamus
True or false. Target refers to the specific receptors in or on the cells. True
What part of the pituitary glands stores hormones? Posterior
What part of the pituitary gland produces hormones? Anterior
The hormones stores in the posterior pituitary gland are produced where? Hypothalamus
What links the hypothalamus with the anterior portion of the pituitary gland? Portal system of blood vessels
What structure orders the pituitary gland to either promote or inhibit the production of hormones? Hypothalamus
What condition is a result of having not enough growth hormone in the body? Dwarfism
What condition is a result of having too much growth hormone in the body? Giantism
What hormone is also known as somatotropic hormone? Growth hormone
What hormone helps regulate metabolism of proteins, carbs and fats in the body's cells? Growth hormone
What type of effect can GH cause? Hyperglycemic effect
The suffix -opic refers to a ________________. Hormone
How many hormones are produced by the anterior pituitary gland? 7
What are the 7 hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland? FSH, TSH, GH, ACTH, Prolactin, MSH, and LH
What gland is also known as the neurohypophysis? posterior pituitary gland
What gland is also known as the adrenohypophysis? anterior pituitary gland
What part of the pituitary gland does not produce any hormones but stores and releases? Posterior pituitary gland
What 2 hormones are stored and released by the posterior pituitary gland? ADH and Oxytocin
What part of the skull houses the pituitary gland? Pituitary fossa
What gland is also called the hypophysis? Pituitary gland
What gland is also called the master endocrine gland? Pituitary gland
Where is ADH produced? Hypothalamus
Where is oxytocin produced? Hypothalamus
What condition is due to having too much GH after the epiphyseal plates close? Acromegaly
What condition causes thickened tongue, facial features and bones of the hands and feet? Acromegaly
What is the current average age of puberty in females? 7
What hormone triggers and maintains lactation and has no known effect in men? Prolactin
What synthetic hormone may be used to increase milk production of dairy cows? Bovine Somatotrophin (BST)
What hormone is also called the thyrotropic hormone? TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
What is the primary task for the TSH? To tell the Thyroid gland what hormones to produce.
What type of test might be done to check for cushings or addisons? ACTH Stimulation Test
_________ stimulates production of cortisol. ACTH
Define ACTH? Adrenocorticotropic hormone
How many different ways can ACTH be released? 2
What hormones helps to produce estrogen? FSH
What hormone stimulates growth and development of follicle in ovaries to create ovum? FSH
Define superovulation. Collecting several eggs at once that are used for artificial insemination.
What is the name of the hormone in men that is the equivalent to LH? ICSH
A surge in __________ causes ovulation to occur. LH
Collectively what are LH and FSH called? Gonadotrophins
Pigment cells are also known as ____________. Melanocytes
What hormone causes pigment change in reptiles, amphibians and fishes? MSH
Lack of ADH can cause what disease? Diabetes Insipidus
Name the narrow band that connect the 2 lobes of the thyroid gland. Isthmus
What is the only endorcrine gland that can store large amounts of hormone precursor for later use? Thyroid
What 2 hormones are produced in the thyroid gland? 1-Thyroid hormone 2-Calcitonin
Thyroid hormone can be broken down to what 2 additional hormones? T3 and T4
T3 is also known as ______________________. Triiodothyronine
T4 is also known as _________________________ or _______________. Tetriodothyronine; thyroxine
True or false. T3 is more potent than T4. True
What term refers to the temperature regulation of the thyroid gland? Calorigenic Effect
What thyroid condition closely resembles Cushing in symptons? Hypothyroidism
True or false. Hypothyroidism is most common in cats. False (Dogs)
True or false. Hyperthyroidism is most common in cats. True
How is hypothyroid treated? Thyroid hormone injections
How is hyperthyroid treated? Drugs/Surgery/Radioactive treatment that destroys part of the thyroid gland
What condition describes the non-cancerous enlargement of the thyroid gland? Goiter
Lack of ___________ production can cause Goiter. Iodine
What hormone is involved with maintaining homeostasis of the blood calcium levels? Calcitonin
What hormone will prevent hypercalcemia by decreasing blood calcium levels? Calcitonin
What hormone encourages excess calcium to be deposited into the bones from the blood? Calcitonin
What hormone encourages excess calcium to be deposited into the blood from the bones? PTH
PTH is responsible for ____________ reabsorption. Magnesium
What is also known as the parathyroid dysfunction? Hypocalcemia
When the parathormone is overwhelmed in lactating animals what condition might it cause? Milk fever
You might see a downer cow if it is suffering from what parathyroid dysfunction? Hypocalcemia
Hypocalcemia is termed what in dogs and cats? Eclampsia
What are the 2 portions of the adrenal gland? Adrenal cortex and medulla
How are hormones in the adrenal cortex released? Negative Feedback System
How are hormones in the adrenal medulla released? Direct Stimulation of the Nervous System
What hormones are produced by the adrenal cortex? Glucocorticoids, mineralcorticoids, and sex hormones.
What hormones are produced by the adrenal medulla? Epinephrine and norepinephrine
What 3 hormones are considered to be glucocorticoids? -Cortisone -Cortisol -Corticosterone
What is the body's natural steroid? Cortisol
What type of hormones cause catabolism of lipids and proteins? Glucocorticoids
What condition results from too much cortisol in the body? Cushings
What is the average lifespan after a cushing diagnoses? 14-17 months
Can Cushings be cured? No, only treated for symptons
What is hyperadrenocorticism? Cushings
What is hypoadrenacorticism? Addisons
What condition results from too little cortisol in the body? Addisons
The suffix -one refers to what? Steroids
How is Addisons treated? With steroid injections
What are the 4 glucocorticoid related drugs discussed in class? 1-Hydrocortisone 2-Prednisone 3-Dexamethasone 4-Triamcinolone
What is the principle mineralcorticoid hormone? Aldosterone
What organ does aldosterone target? Kidneys
What are the 2 sex hormones produced by the adrenal cortex? Estrogen and testosterone
What organ located near the small intestines has both endocrine and exocrine glands? Pancreas
Where are hormones produced in the pancreas? Islets of Langerhans
What 3 hormones are produced in the pancreas? Insulin, Glucagon and somatostatin.
What is produced by the alpha cells? Glucagon
What is produced by the beta cells? Insulin
What is produced by the delta cells? Somatostatin
What hormone lowers the level of glucose in the blood? Insulin
What hormone increases the level of glucose in the blood? Glucagon
What hormone stimulates gluconeogenesis? Glucagon
What hormone inhibits the secretion of both insulin and glucagon as well as GH? Somatostatin
_________________ is caused by a deficiency of insulin and a build up of glucose within the body. Diabetes Mellitus
Is Diabetes mellitus curable? No, but treatable
What hormone does the testes produce? Testosterone
What hormone stimulates the testes to produce testosterone? LH
What hormones are produced in the ovaries? Estrogens and Progestins
What are the 2 estrogens? Estradiol and estrone
What produces progesterone? Corpus Luteum
What hormone do the kidneys produce? Erythropoietin
________________ stimulates red bone marrow to increase production of red blood cells. Erythropoietin
What hormone is produced in the stomach? Gastrin
What 2 hormones are produced in the small intestines? Secretin and Cholecystokinin
What hormone stimulates the pancreas to help with intestinal motility? Secretin
What hormone stimulates the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas to the duodenum? Cholecystokinin (CK)
The _____________ produces only small amounts of estrogen and progesterone. Placenta
Besides estrogen and progesterone, what other hormone is produced by the placenta? chorionic gonadotropin (CG)
What gland will shrink as the individual gets older? Thymus
What hormones are produced by the thymus? Thymosin and Thymopoietin
What gland influences the body's biological clock? Pineal body
What hormone is produced byt the pineal body? Melatonin
What hormone affects mood and wake-sleep cycles? Melatonin
What are prostaglandins derived from? Unsaturated fatty acids
What hormones are also known as tissue hormones? Prostaglandins
What hormones are organized by lettering A-I? Prostaglandins
What is the average cat/dog blood glucose? 80-180
The Plantar Stance in a cat can be a trademark sign of what condition? Diabetes
What type of medication would you use to treat type 1 diabetes? Lantis or Humalin (R, U, NPH)
What type of medication stimulates erythropoietin production so the patient can continue with chemotherapy treatments as scheduled? Procrit
Where is Gastrin produced in the stomach? G-Cells
Where is calcitonin produced in the thyroid gland? C-Cells
What are the 2 primary functions of the gastrin hormone? 1-Causes contractions of the pyloric antrum which aids in pushing food out to the intestines 2- Stimulates production of HCl acid in the stomach
What cells does chemotherapy target? Rapidly dividing cells
Secretin inhibits the production of ______________. Gastrin
What hormone is used in fat digestion? CCK - Cholecystokinin
What is another name for the T-Lymphocytes? T-Cells
What is the function of T-Cells? Attack foreign invaders
Which hormone is associated with inflammation? Prostaglandins
Created by: fadedfaithless