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Lecture 8 9/21/11

Energy

QuestionAnswer
Definition of Energy -the potential to perform work -energy is not a nutrient
Units -calorie=the heat required to raise the temp of 1g of water from 16.5 to 17.5*C -measured in Kcal(Cal), Mcal
Factors Regulating Energy Balance/Use -feed quantity/quality -feed intake regulation -animal genetics/physiological state -environment
Factors of Feed Quality/Quantity -how much is offered -nutrient content and balance -digestibility
Factors of Feed Intake Regulation -dependent on dietary and non-dietary factors -fill, energy density -behavior, environment
Factors of Animal Genetics/Physiological State -potential to utilize energy
Factors of Environment -temperature, wind, humidity, etc. -housing
Expressions for Energy Values for Feeds -Physiological Fuel Value System -TDN: Total Digestible Nutrients -DE: Digestible Energy -ME: Metabolizable Energy -NE: Net Energy -GE: Gross Energy -FE: Fecal Energy
Phys Fuels Values -used in human and lab animal guidelines -estimates can vary greatly depending on source of nutrient -carbohydrate 4kcal/g -fat 9kcal/g -protein 4kcal/g
Total Digestible Nutrient -TDN -measure of relative energy value of a feed(in tables as a %) -sum of digestible CP, CF, NFE plus (digestible EE x 2.25) -does not include energy loss from urine, fermentation, gases, heat losses
Gross Energy -GE -total heat of combustion(kcal)
Fecal Energy -FE -undigested food, microbial cells, and endogenous losses
Digestible Energy -DE -DE=GE-FE -the portion of the GE in a feed that is not excreted in feces(reflects diet digestibility)
Metabolizable Energy -ME -ME=DE-(urinary energy and combustible gas losses) -measure the dietary energy available for metabolism
Urinary Losses in ME -N compounds(urea, creatinine, allantoin, etc.) -non-N compounds
Gaseous Losses in ME -methane(CH4) -ruminants gasseous losses>urinary losses -roughages>concentrates(gaseous losses)
Net Energy -NE -NE=ME-HI(heat increment: ingestion & digestion) -portion available for sustenance of life and productive purposes -maintenance(NEm): basal metabolism, voluntary activity, heat to warm/cool body -production(NEp): work, product synthesis
Maintence Energy Requirement -amount of feed energy intake that will result in no net loss or gain of energy from the tissues of the animal body
Difference in NEm and NEg -different efficiencies between maintenance and growth
Created by: ickbutt