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Lecture 7 9/16/11 E1

Vitamins

QuestionAnswer
The Word "Vitamins" -vita= "life" -amine= "contains N"(only a few actually contain N)
Vitamin Functions -required in small amounts -different from carbs, fat, protein -essential for metabolism -*metabolic regulators* -required for normal growth and maintenance
Vitamin Sources -not normally synthesized by the body -present in foods(effective in small amounts)
Fat Soluble Vitamins -resembles lipids(the reason why they are fat soluble) -Vitamin A, D, E, K -occur in plants as a provitamin(converted in the animal body by enzymes) -absorbed in small intestine with fat
Vitamin A -Beta Carotene: main source(precursor) of Vitamin A -fresh forage>grains(leafy has more) -extensive storage in liver -involved in eye function, epithilial tissue
Vitamin D -exposure to sunlight(in skin 7-dehydroxycholoesterol converts to vit D) -high in sun-cured forages -confinement may require vit D supplementation -some storage in liver -involved in regulating Ca & P metabolism
Vitamin E -Tocopherol(precursor) main source -extensive storage in body -serves as antioxidant(cellular health) and salidium: maintain health of cells(converts free radicals into water)
Vitamin K -produced by microbes in the gastrointestinal tract -deficiency not likely in most species -involved in blood clotting -moldy feed/forage=deficiency(releases a compound that inhibits vit K)
Water Soluble Vitamins -Vitamin B and C -absorbed in upper small intestine(except B12) -not as much stored as fat soluble vitamins -involved in transfer of energy(enzymatic activity-most are used this way), cofactors for enzymes
B Vitamins -B1:Thiamine -B2:Riboflavin -B3:Niacin -B5:Pantothenic Acid -B6:Pyridoxin -B7:Biotin -B9:Folic Acid -B12:Cobalamin -B4, B8, B10, B11: no longer considered B Vitamins
Vitamin C -maintains health -animals do not have a required amount, they produce enought themselves(humans, monkeys, & guinea pigs need to be supplemented)
Microbial Production -normally produced in Rumen -Vitamin K -B Vitamins
Vitamin Summary -organic nutrient(contains C) -not a functional source of energy -fat and water soluble -general function: metabolic regulators -microbes are a good source of B vitamins and vitamin K
Nutrient Review -Nutrient: a chemical compound having specific functions in the nutritive support of life; a nutritious ingredient or substance in food -water -carbohydrates -fats(lipids) -protein(amino acids) -minerals -vitamins
Created by: ickbutt