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Lecture 4 9/7/11 E1

Protein

QuestionAnswer
4 Main Elements -carbon -hydrogen -oxygen -nitrogen(16%) (-sulfur)
Protein Composition -amino acid chains (polymers-peptide bonds) :amine(NH2) group :carboxylic acid (COOH) group :R-group (side-group)
Crude Protein true protein and non-protein nitrogen (nitrogen x 6.25)
True Protein polymer of amino acids
Non-Protein Nitrogen (NPN) can be converted to protein by microbes
Amino Acids -building block of proteins -required in development of protein
Amino Acid Types -Essential(indispensible): must be provided in diet -Non-Essential(dispensible): body can produce enough
Protein Deposition -protein synthesis -protein degradation -protein turnover (accretion)
Protein Synthesis -controlled by AA availability, energy intake, animal genetics, production state, etc.
Influences on AA Requirements for Protein Synthesis -capacity to synthesize protein -animal genetics (growth rate, body composition, etc.), production state, energy intake
Function of Amino Acids/Dietary Protein -precursor for body protein synthesis -energy source -precursors for other molecules (Gluconeogenesis, Ureagenesis, Nucleotides, Hormones, etc.) -Signaling (regulate gene expression, protein synthesis, etc.)
Essential Amino Acids -Arginine -Histidine -Isoleucine -Leucine -Lysine -Methionine -Phenylalanine -Threonine -Tryptophan -Valine
Non-Essential Amino Acids -Alanin -Asparagine -Aspartic Acid -Cysteine -Cystine -Glutamic Acid -Glutamine -Glycine -Hydroxyproline -Proline -Serine -Tyrosine
Limiting Amino Acid -essential amino acid limiting growth -present in the least amount in relation to the animals's need (-the first amino acid to limit protein synthesis relative to the level of the AA in the diet)
Non-Limiting Amino Acids -present only to the extent of the limiting essential amino acid
Limiting Amino Acid Example Need Corn % of need Lysine 0.70% 0.25% 36% Leucine 0.60% 1.21% 202% -limiting amino acid: Lysine 36% (0.60[Leucine] x 36%[Lysine %])/1.21[full %) (0.60 x 0.36)/1.21 0.1785 only 17.9% of corn Leucine will be used for protein synthesis(more than 2x Leucine need is present)
Function of Excess Amino Acids -Amino group is removed from AA by transaminase reaction -Ammonia(toxic to animal) -carbon skeletons(used as energy source[produce ATP] or as precursor for other molecules)
Function of Rumen Microbes -synthesize protein for their own cellular development (makes their amino acids from N sources: true protein or NPN) -digested in animal/provide essential and non-essential amino acids(very good quality protein)
Meanings: AA, DIP, UIP, NPN, MCP, NH3 Amino Acids, Ruminally Degradable Intake Protein, Ruminally Undegradable Intake Protein, Non-Protein Nitrogen, Microbial Crude Protein, Ammonia
Crude Protein Digestion CP=N x 6.25
DIP Digestion DIP=portion of CP degraded in the ruman and avaible for microbial crude protein synthesis
UIP Digestion UIP=portion of CP not degraded in the ruman and thus available for post-ruminal digestion
MCP Digestion MCP=CP produced by the microbes in the rumen
Uses of Non-Protein Nitrogen -used by microbes in rumen :incorporated in amino acids, then protein :protein(amino acid) is used by the host -Urea :45% nitrogen :281% CP equivalent -N not found in proteins(nucleic acids, urea and salts of ammonia)
Protein Sources -corn :~9% crude protein :poor quality -soybean meal :~45% crude protein :good quality(more balance in AA)
Protein Summary -organic nutrient -contains about 16% N -made up of amino acids -AA balance determines quality of protein -microbes can use non-protein nitrogen(and true protein to provide good quality protein to host) -excess protein is used for energy
Created by: ickbutt