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Lecture 3 9/2/11 E1

Carbohydrates

QuestionAnswer
Carbohydrate Composition -made of C, H, O [roughly Cn(H2O)n]
Carbohydrates in Feed -primary component in livestock feeds/largest part of animal's food supply :present in forages, grains, & oilseed meals :generally cheapest source of available energy :generally main source of energy
Where are Carbohydrates created plants-photosynthesis -6CO2 + 6H2O + Solar Energy -> C6H12O6
Monosaccharide -glucose -fructose -galactose -mannose -arabinose -xylose
Disaccharide -sucrose -maltose -celloboise -lactose
Polysaccharide -starch -fiber -glycogen
Starch -plant energy storage -major component of livestock diets (cereal grains & tubers) -a non-structural carbohydrate -highly digestible -composed of glucose units
Fiber -cellulose(glucose units), hemicellulose(mixed sugars), pectin, fructan, etc. -in plant cell walls (lignin) -a structural carbohydrate -non-digestible (requires microbial enzymes-digest beta linkages)
Glycogen -animal "starch" -produced in muscle and liver -carbohydrate reserve in the animal body -hydrolyzes to glucose
Effects of Maturation on Grasses -Concentration of NDF and Lignin increases -CP decreases
Lignin -not a carbohydrate (part of plant structure/considered with fiber) -mostly indigestible by livestock and microbes -reduces digestibility of fiber -increases as plants mature
Pectin -considered with fiber -located in matrix in plant cell walls -soluble and easily fermented
Carbohydrate Summary -organic nutrient -provides most of the energy in livestock diets -sugars and starches(digested or fermented) -fiber(fermented to VFA by microbes) -Ligin(not a carbohydrate, reduces digestibility of fiber)
Created by: ickbutt