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Chapter 17&18 A/P

Sex, Sex and more Sex

QuestionAnswer
What is the main goal of the reproductive system? To ensure the survival of a species
True or false. Reproduction is essential to life not for the perpetuation of the species. False
When does fertilization occur/. When the spermatazoon penetrates the cytoplasm of the ovum.
Once the ovum is fertilized where is it transferred that provides a hospitable environment for developement? Uterus
Define meiosis: Reduction division of a cell so that a chromosome number goes from a diploid number to a haploid number.
Define diploid: A full cell or total # of chromosomes of a species. (Always an even #)
Define Haploid: Half of chromosome (Ova or sperm)
The primary spermatocyte/oocyte is ________ in nature. Diploid
What are the coiled masses of DNA and are considered to be the genetic blueprint? Chromosomes
How do you express 2 diploids? 2n
How many diploids do humans have? 46
How many diploids do dogs have? 78
How many diplods do cats have? 38
True or false. Twins run on the maternal side. True
XX indicates what sex? Female
XY indicates what sex? Male
True or false. An XX and YY combination of chromosomes are possible. False. (Not YY)
When counting chromosomes what should be counted instead of the tail? The centromere
Define mitosis: Replication/Duplication
Where does spermatogenesis occur? Seminiferous tubules of the testes.
How many sperm are created from a single spermatocyte? 4
What is the main male hormone that is produced by the testes? Testosterone
Where are sperm stored before ejaculation? Epididymis
Where does oogenesis take place? The developing ovarian follice
What is the female sex cell? Ova
How many ova are produced per oocyte? 1
When do oocytes become active? at the start of the ovarian cycle
What is a polar body? an excess of chromosomes resulting from meiotic division that will never mature into an ovum
What is the term for the male gonads? Testes
Where are the testes housed? scrotum
What are the 2 main functions of the testes? 1-Spermatogenesis 2-Hormone production
Where does hormone production take place in the testes? The interstitial cells
What structure pulls the testes down with growth, eventually through the inguinal ring? Gubernaculum
Define cryptorchid: Undescended testicle
By about what age should both testicles have descended into the scrotum? 16 weeks of age
What may need to be removed or could cause testicular cancer and is considered a trait capable of passing down to future generations? Cryptorchid
What is another name for hormone? Androgen
What are the 3 parts of the sperm? Head, Midpiece, and tail
What part of the sperm contains the nucleus? Head
What part of the sperm has large amounts ofmitochondria arranged in a spiral pattern? Midpiece
The acrosome of the sperm is responsible for what? Providing the deigestive enzymes that help the sperm to penetrate the ova.
What is the name of the sac of skin that not only helps to regulate temperature but houses the testes? Scrotum
What muscle is responsible for raising and lowering the testicles? Cremaster muscle
What structure links the testes with the rest of the male body? Spermatic Cord
What network of veins in the male is responsible for keeping the temperature lower than anywhere else in the body? Pampiniform Plexus-Network of veins
What are the 2 layers of the testes? Visceral Vaginal Tunic (Inner) and Parietal Vaginal Tunic (Outer)
What is the medical procedure for a castration or neuter? Orchidectomy
What must be tied off in order for the testes to be removed? Corresponding blood vessels
True or false. Each teste is contained in a capsule beneath the tunics. True
What is the testes heavy fibrous connective tissue capsule called? Tunica Albuginea
What takes place in the seminiferous tubules? Spermatogenesis
What is the main source of protection and support the contents of the testes? Tunica Albuginea
When referring to the ICSH what sex are you most likely referring to? Male
Define ICSH: Interstitial cell stimulation hormone
What is another name for the LH in males? ICSH
Define LH: Luteinizing Hormone
What are sertoli cells? large "Nurse" type cells that attach to the chromatids while they are undergoing changes
How long can sperm survive inside of the female body? 5 days
What is the result of a sertoli cell multilpying out of control? Sertoli Cell Tumor
What kind of procedure can resolve the issues of a sertoli cell tumor? Castration
What are the flat ribbonlike structures that lie along the surface of the testes? Epididymis
If you were to stretch the male epididymis, about how far could you stretch it? 20 feet long
What are the 3 regions of the epididymis? Head, Body and Tail
What part of the epididymis do sperm enter from the efferent ducts? Head
What part of the epididymis continues on to be the vas deferens? The tail
How long must sperm be stored and matured in the epididymis before being ejaculated? A week or more
When ejaculation occurs what muscular tube connects the epididymis with the urethra? Vas deferens
What is another name for the vas deferens? Ductus Deferens
What procedure involves removal of the vas deferens to prevent sperm from ever reaching the urethra? Vasectomy
True or false. A vasectomy can be done so that it is reversible. True
What is the pH of the ejaculate? Basic
True or false. The more sperm produced, the larger the prostate gland. True
What is the only accessory reproductive gland in dogs? Prostate Gland
What is another name for the bulbourethral gland? Cowpers gland
What two accessory reproductive glands do cats have? Bulbourethral gland and prostate gland
What animal does not have a bulbourethral gland? Dog
When a man has an erection is he relaxing or reflexing? Relaxing
When a man is ejaculating, is he relaxing or reflexing? Reflexing
What part of the penis has the richest suppy of sensory nerve endings? Glans Penis
What are the 3 parts of the penis? 1-Roots 2-Body/Shaft 3-Glans/Tip
Define Colulation: Sex
What is the largest portion of the penis? The body
Name the 2 bundles of tissue of the body of the penis: Corpus Cavernosum and Corpus Spongiosum
True or false. Male cats have spinescovering their glans. True
What is the outer layer of skin covering the penis? Prepuce
What sheath of skin encloses the penis when it is not erect? Prepuce
Describe the inner portion of the prepuce of the penis? Outer portion? Inner: Moist with smooth mucous membranes Outer: Normal layer of skin
What is the name of the bony portion of some animal's penis'? Os Penis
Name the 4 animals you can find an Os Penis in: -Raccoon -Dog -Walrus -Beaver
What structure of the penis keeps a male and female dog attached due to swelling after mating? Bulbs of the Glans
What is the majority of male erectile tissue composed of? Corpus Cavernosum
What is the remining portion of the male erectile tissue after Cavernosum? Corpus Spongiosum
How long can a male and female stay mounted due to the swelling of the bulb of the glans penis? 15-20 minutes after mating
Define Smegma: The greenish-white discharge from the penis after ejaculation.
True or false. You can find sigmoid flexure in domesticated animals. False (Large Animals- Cow, etc)
____________________ refers to the S-Shape of a non-erect penis of a bull, ram or boar. Sigmoid Flexure
True or false, Sigmoid felxures have more connective tissue that erectile tissue. True
What muscle controls the sigmoid flexure? Retractor penis muscle
True or false. The male reproductive system takes cues from the olfactory senses. True
What is the reflexive expulsion of semen from the penis? Ejaculation
Rhythmic contractions of what structure pump semen out? Urethra
The broad ligaments of the female reproductive system connect to what three structures? Ovaries, Oviducts, and Uterus
True or false. The broad ligmaments contain blood vessels, nerves and fat. True
What section of the broad ligament support the ovaries? Mesovarium
What section of the broad ligament supports the oviduct? Mesosalpinx
What section of the broad ligament supports the uterus? Mesometrium
What is an OHE? Ovariohysterectomy
What is removed during an ovariohysterectomy? The ovaries and uterus
What broad ligament extends from the tip of the uterine horn to the inguinal ring? Round Ligament
What are the female gonads? ovaries
What is the primary functions of the ovaries? Produce hormones and produce reproductive cells
What are the 2 hormones produced by the ovaries? Estrogen and Progestins
Trye or false. An animal is always creating more oocysts throughout its life. False. (Born with set amt.)
What female hormone is responsible for physical as well as behavioral changes? Estrogen
What part of the ovary produces pregestins? Corpus luteum
What hormone is necessary for maintenance of pregnancy? Progestins
Define uniparous: Giving birth to one offspring at a time.
Define multiparous: Giving birth to multiple offspring at a time (A litter)
What 2 hormones influence the ovarian cycle? FSH and LH
What is FSH? Follicle Stimulating Hormone
What is LH? Luteinizing Hormone
What hormones control the estrous cycle? FSH and LH
What are the 4 estrous cycle intervals? 1-Polyestrous 2-Seasonally Polyestrous 3-Diestrous 4-Monoestrous
What estrous cycle describes animals that cycle throughout the year so long as they are not pregnant? Polyestrous
What estrous cycle intervals describes animals with 2 cycles per year, usually spring and fall? Diestrous
What estrous cycle interval describes animals that only have one estrous cycle per year? monoestrous
What type of estrous cycle do cattle and swine have? Polyestrous
What type of estrous cycle do horse, sheep and cats have? Seasonally Polyestrous
What type of estrous cyle do dogs have? Diestrous
What type of estrous cycle do fox and minks have? Monoestrous
True or false. Estrus refers to a cycle where breeding chances are at their greatest. False. (Estrous)
True or false. Estrus refers to one portion of the heat cycle. True
How many stages of the estrous cycle are there? 5
Name the 5 stages of the estrous cycle. 1-Proestrus 2-Estrus 3-Metestrus 4-Diestrus 5-Anestrus
What stage of estrous does the oviduct, uterus and vagina all thicken? Proestrus
What stage of estrous does the estrogen levels reach their peak? Estrus
What stage of the estrous cycle is also known as the heat period? Estrus
What stage of the estrous cycle follows estrus, and the corpus luteum begins developing? Metestrus
What stage of estrous does the corpus luteum reach its maximum size? Diestrus
What do vaginal smears test for? LH
True or false. Estrous stages can't be determined through the process of vaginal smears. False (Can be)
What is the only domesticated animal that vaginal smears are performed on? Dogs
Once the ovum is released the empty follicle fills with blood and is called the ________________. Corpus Hemorrhagicum
What scars, creating the corpus luteum? Corpus hemorrhagicum
What happens to the corpus luteum if the ovum is never fertilized? It will degenerate
What is the degeneration of follicles that do not develop into the ovum, known as? Follicular Atresia
What are the fallopian tubes also known as? Oviducts
What is another name for the uterine tubes? Oviducts
Where is the site of fertilization? Oviducts
What is the term that describes the end of an oviduct? Infundibulum
What muscle like fingers help to position the infundibulum in the right spot? Fimbrae
What happens to the ova if it is lost in the abdominal cavity? It disintegrates
What is another name for the uterus? The Womb
___________ refers to the shrinking of the uterus over time. Involution
What are the 3 walls of the uterus? Endometrium, Myometrium, and Perimetrium
What is the thickest portion of the uterus wall? Myometrium
What is the outermost layer of the uterus called? perimetrium
What layer of the uterus is composed of simple columnar epithelium and glands that secrete mucus? Endometrium
What structure is considered to be the doorway between the vagina and the uterus? The Cervix
True or false. The cervix is only closed during birth and breeding. False (Opened)
What is the birth canal during parturition? Vagina
What structure of the female reproductive system extends from the cervix and connects to the vulva? Vagina
What are the 3 components of the vulva? 1-Vestibule 2-Clitoris 3-Labia
What is the primary entrance/welcome center into the vagina? Vestibule
What part of the vulva is the sensory portion and is equivalent to the males penis? Clitoris
What part of the vulva form the external boundary of the vulva? Labia
True or false. Dogs cant have orgasms. True
What is the medical procedure often termed "Spay"? Ovariohysterectomy
True or false. An OHE is a minor abdominal surgery. False (Major)
What condition might occur after the cervix has opened for breeding and bacteria enters before the cervix closes? Pyometra
What are the 2 types of pyometra? Opened and closed
Pyometra is considered a surgical emergency and requires a complete __________________. OHE
Anytime an unspayed female patient comes in, what should you always ask the owner right away? When was the animal's last heat cycle
What is another term for a false pregnancy? Pseduocyesis
What is another name for pseudopregnancy? Pseudocyesis
How are false pregnancies resolved? Spontaneously or through the use of hormones
What estrous stage is this: The bitch is attractive to the male but wont stand for mating. Proestrus
What estrous stage is this: Accepts the male and will stand Estrus
What estrous stage is this: The bitch ceases to accept the male. Diestrus
What estrous stage is this: Parabasal and intermediate cells are predominant. Anestrus
What are the 4 cell types that are seen while viewing a vaginal smear? Intermediate, Superficial, Parabasal, and Anuclear
Define Copulation. The act of breeding, usually in a mounted position
Define intromission: Insertion of the penis into the vagina
When is the semen deposited into the vagina? During ejaculation
Which two animals deposit semen directly into the mate's uterus? Horse and Pig
Copulation causes __________________ to release ___________ which causes smooth muscle contractions that help sperm move to the ovum. Pituitary Gland, Oxytocin
What is the term referring to the series of changes that sperm undergo in the female reproductive tract to increase their chances of fertilization? Capacitation
What are the 4 changes a sperm will undergo during capacitation? 1-Change in ion movement 2-Increased metabolic rate 3-Increased rate of simple sugar use 4-Allows acrosome enzyme to be released
In general, what are sperm designed to seek out and penetrate? Something large and round
What is a fertilized ovum? Zygote
What has 2 nuclei/pronucleus immediately after fertilization? Zygote
What is the rapid division of the zygote once a single nucleus has been established? Cleavage
True or false. As the zygote rapidly divides it grows in size. False (Stays the same size)
Once the zygote is a solid mass of cells what stage is it in? Morula Stage
How long does it take for the zygote to move down from the ovum to the uterus? 3-5 days
True or false. The blastocyst is considered to be the future embryo. True
Only after ____________ of the blastocyst is the female considered to be pregnant. implantation
Placenta forms as soon as what occurs? implantation
What is transported to the blastocyst via placenta? Oxygen and nutrients
True or false. Embryo is the developing offspring during the later part of the pregnancy. False.(Earlier)
What is the term used for the developing embryo in the later part of pregnancy? Fetus
What is considered to be the support system for the fetus? The placenta
True or false. The placenta grows along with the fetus. True
What connects the placenta to the fetus? Umbilical Cord
True or false. Fetal and maternal blood mixes. False (Runs closely)
What are the 3 layers of the placenta? 1-Amnion 2-Allantois 3-Chorion
What structure of the fetus is considered to be the waste tube and eventually makes up the baby's urethra? Urachus
What layer of the placenta forms the amniotic sac directly around the fetus? Amnion
What is the outermost layer of the placenta and is linked to the fetus by the umbilical cord? Chorion
How many arteries and veins are contained within the umbilical cord? 2 arteries, and 1 vein
What tube runs from the cranial tip of the fetus' bladder through the umbilical cord to the allantoic sac? Urachus
True or false. The fetus produces urine. False.
What are the 4 types of placental attachment? 1-Diffuse 2-Cotyledonary 3-Zonary 4-Discoid
What type of placental attachment is found in pigs and horses? Diffuse
What type of placental attachment is found in ruminants? Cotyledonary
What type of placental attachment is found in cats and dogs? Zonary
What type of placental attachment is found in humans and primates? Discoid
What type of placental attachment is described as a single disc shaped area? Discoid
What type of placental attachment is described as beltshaped, that encircles the placenta? Zonary
What type of placental attachment is described as being spread evenly over the whole surface of the placenta as well as the lining of the uterus? Diffuse
What type of placental attachment is described as suction cups and are small and numerous? Cotyledonary
What is another name for pregnancy? Gestation period
What is the period from implantation to delivery termed? Gestation period
What are the 3 segments of pregnancy called? Trimesters
What occurs in the 1st trimester? Embryo implants and placental develops
What occurs in the 2nd trimester? Embryo is now called fetus and parts begin taking shape and developing
What occurs in the 3rd trimester? Dramatic fetal growth.
What is the gestation period of a cat? 2 months (56-69 days)
What is the gestation period of a dog? 2 months (59-68 days)
What is the gestation period of a ferret? 6 weeks (42 days)
What is the gestation period of a Horse? 11 months (321-346 days)
What is the gestation period of a human? 9 months (280 days)
What is the gestation period of pig? 3 months, 3 weeks, and 3 days (110-116 days)
What is another name for the process of giving birth? Parturition
At what point do the lungs of a newborn become functional? Parturition
What 3 things trigger parturition? Size and weight of uterus as well as hormone levels
Increased levels of _________________ stimulate rise in _____________ levels. Glucocorticoid hormones; estrogen
What are the 3 stages of labor? 1-Uterine Contractions 2-Delivery of newborn 3-Delivery of placenta
True or false. The mother often eats the placenta. True
True or false. In multiparous animals, the last 2 stages of perturition will mix with one another, delivering newborn and placenta alternatively. True
Define dystopia. Difficult birth
What is the most common cause of dystocia? Fetus is too large to pass or in wrong position
What is an embryotomy? Removal of a fetus, often removed in segments
What animals have only one opening per teat? Cattle, sheep and goats
What animal has up to 20 openings per teat? Dog
How many mammary glands are there? 4 (Divided into quarters)
True or false. Each quarter of mammary glands share a milk secreting system as well as ducts. False (Each has their own)
What suspends the udders of a cow? Suspensory ligaments
True or false. The suspensory ligaments of the udders act as a shock absorber. True
Define mastitis. infection of the mammary gland
True or false. Mastitis can not spread through the bloodstream. False
________________ are the milk secreting ducts of the mammary glands. Alveoli
Alveolar ducts empty into a large space called the ______________, which is where milk is extracted by the suckling young. gland sinus
The ________________ is the passageway from the teat sinus to the outside. streak canal
True or false. Mastitis can not spread through the bloodstream. False
What two hormones directly encourage mammary gland development? Prolactin and growth hormone
What 2 hormones encourage mammary alveoli and duct system development? Estrogen and progesterone
What is the term for the process of milk production? Lactation
What two hormones are involved with the starting of lactation? Prolactin and growth hormone
What is another name for the first milk or premilk? Colostrum
Define meconium. First feces
True or false. Lactation continues as long as mammary glands are emptied regularly. True
__________ causes myoepithelial cells around the alveoli and small ducts to contract squeezing milk downwards. Oxytocin
What is the average amount of time it takes for milk to flow freely after milk let down? up to a minute
What is the puerperal tetany or hypocalcemia tetany condition associated with pregnancy? Exclampsia
How many phases are there in the canine ovarian cycle? 4 (Not Metestrus)
What hormone causes the interpubic ligament to relax, allowing the pubic bones to spearate? Relaxin
What hormone physically allows the fetus to pass through the pelvic canal? Relaxin
What is another name for a matured ovarian follicle that has released an ovum? Corpus Luteum
What hormone does the fetal pituitary gland secrete? ACTH
During what estrous stage would you see zero neutrophils on a vaginal smear? Estrus
What are the attachment sites for the cotyledon and caruncles? Placentome
What is the area on the surface of the cotyledonary placenta? Cotyledon
What is the area on the surface of the uterus when referring to a cotyledonary attachment? Caruncle
During what trimester are there the highest chances for misscarriages? First
What is the gestation cycle of a cow? 9 months
What hormone decreases at parturition? Progesterone
What hormone increases at parturition? Estrogen
What hormone is sensitive during parturition and stimulates contractions? Oxytocin
True or false. It is normal to deliver bulldogs via c-section. True
How many teats does a cat/dog have? 10
How many teats do pigs have? 14
How many teats do humans and horses have? 2
True or false. Mastitis can not spread through the bloodstream. False (It can)
What is the structure that forms the passageway from the teat sinus to the outside? Streak Canal
What 2 hormones are responsible for making the milk for lactation? Prolactin and LH
What term refers to the first feces? Meconium
True or false. You should wait until your pet is fully weaned before providing vaccinations. True
Drying up of the mammary gland requires approx. ________ days of not producing milk. 7-14
What hormone is responsible for squeezing the myoepithelial cells around the alveoli that releases milk? Oxytocin
Created by: fadedfaithless