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Blood: Part 2

Lab Pro- Blood Part 2

Define Polychromasia. Variation in the cells color
Define Anisocytosis. Variation in the cells size.
Define Poikilocytosis. Variation in the cells shape.
What are the 2 types of Polychromasia? Hyperchromasia and Hypochromasia.
What causes the bluish tint in a polychromatic erythrocyte? Small amount of retained nucleus
Describe a hypochromatic cell. A decrease in color due to hemoglobin within the cell.
Define Hb. Hemoglobin
What is the most common cause of hypochromasia? Iron deficiency
Describe a hyperchromatic cell. An increase in color that gives the appearance that the cell is over-saturated with hemoglobin.
True or false. Hyperchromasia can not exist. True
Why can true hyperchromasia not exist? Each erythrocytes has a finite capasity for hemoglobin, can not be over saturated.
How do you measure total solids or total proteins? g/100mL OR g/dL
What is MCHC? Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration
What does "Mean" entitle? The average
Waht does the MCHC measure? The average hemoglobin within a cell.
What is the normal MCHC? 31-36%
Anisocytosis can indicate what condition? Anemia
What are the two types of anisocytosis? Microcytosis and macrocytosis.
True or false. The larger the cell, the younger the animal. True
Macrocytosis usually indicates what condition? What type of deficiency? Liver disease; B12
MCV stands for __________________. Mean Corpuscular Volume
MCV describes what 3 types of cells? -Normocytes -Macrocytes -Microcytes
What does MCV measure? The average volume of RBCs.
How is an MCV measured? fL
Define fL. Femtolitres
True or false. Poikilocytosis can be used as an overall diagnosis. False
Schistocytes refer to what type of cell? Fragmented Cells
How are Schistocytes formed? Sheared by the fibrin strands.
Define DIC. Disseminiated Intravascular Coagulopathy
Schistocytes are seen in fragmentation hemolysis caused by what 4 conditions? 1-DIC 2-Vascular Neoplasia 3-Endocarditis 4-Iron Deficiency
What is another name for the fragmented cells? Schistocytes
Acanthocytes refer to what type of cells? Spur cells
What does acanthi mean? Thorn
How many irregular fingerlike projections are found on a single spur cell? 5-10
What are the 3 ways a spur cell projection might vary? Width, length, and surface distribution
Where would you usually find an acanthocyte? In animals with an altered lipid metabolism.
When drying slides after a blood smear, how should they be positioned? Upright position, original blood droplet downwards.
What is another name for spur cells? Acanthocytes
True or false. Artifacts are artifically created. True
What is another name for Echinocytes? Burr cells
How are Echinocytes' spines distributed? Evenly around the cell.
When might you see artifically formed Burr cells? With slow drying slides, or if the EDTA was underfilled.
True or false. Crenation is created by the technician. True
What 3 conditions are associated with Echinocytes? 1-Renal disease 2-Lymphosarcoma 3-Rattlesnake bites in dogs
What is another name for Burr cells? Echinocytes
What type of poikilocyte is normally seen in horses after exercise? Echinocyte
How is crenation identified? As the presence of many irregular membrane projections involving most RBCs.
What usually causes crenation? Slow drying blood slides
In what animal would you observe crenation commonly? Pig
What is another term for sickle cell? Drepanocytes
Sickle Cell is a type of what condition? Anemia
Describe a drepanocyte. Crescent shaped with pointed ends.
Sickle cells are often seen in normal blood of what 2 animals? Deer and goats
Drepanocytes are thought to be a result of low ___________. Oxygen
What is another name for Drepanocyte? Sickle Cell
What is the common name for a pre-keratocyte? Blister cell
What is contained in a pre-keratocyte? Pseudo Vacuole
What is another name for blister cells? Pre-keratocyte
What are 2 additional names for keratocytes? Bite cells and helmet cells.
True or false. Helmet Cells are associated with fibrin strand contact/trauma. True
What is the normal shape of a canine red blood cell? biconcave disk shape
What type of animal are spherocytes usually found in? Dogs
What type of cells have reduced cell membrane and are hyper-pigmented? Spherocytes
Define AIHA. Auto Immune Hemolytic Anemia
What cells are most frequently seen in AIHA patients? Spherocytes
What is another name for Codocytes? Leptocytes
Name the 8 types of poikilocytes. 1-Schistocyte 2-Acanthocyte 3-Echinocyte 4-Drepanocyte 5-Pre-Keratocyte 6-Keratocyte 7-Spherocyte 8-Codocyte
What is another name for Leptocytes? Codocytes
What are the 2 types of Codocytes? Stomatocyte and Target Cell
Codocytes describes cell that have an increase in what? Membrane Surface Area
What type of cell has a central pallor that resembles a coin slot? Stomatocyte
What type of cell is seen in liver disease, electrolyte imbalance and acute alcoholism? Stomatocytes
What type of cell is observed mainly in dogs in which there is a change in the central pallor's appearance? Target Cells
What is another name for bull's eye cells? Target Cells
Describe a target cell. Thin, bell shaped cell with a centrally stained area.
What do target cells indicate? Liver disease or hemoglobinpathies.
True or false. Target cells may be seen as an artifact when smears are slowly dried. False (Blown dry)
Dacryocytes are most seen in what type of diseases? Myelproliferative
How can you tell whether a dacryocyte is in it's true form or is presented as an artifact? The direction of the tails
What are NRBC? Nucleated Red Blood Cells
What do NRBCs represent? And early release of immature RBCs during anemia.
Where might you observe basophilic stippling? In RBCs that contain abnormal aggregation of RNA such as :Heavy metal poisoning, regenerative anemia, or intense erythrogenesis.
What type of cell has freckles or spots on it's surface? Basophilic stippling
What are the cells that are often seen in cats and horses as well as those with regenerative anemic animals or in those with spenic disease? Howell-Jolly Bodies
What organ is in charge of storing RBCs? Spleen
What type of cells appear as colorless bumps with a quick stain? Heinz bodies
Heinz bodies are the particles of denatured _________________ protein. hb (hemoglobin)
What type of cell is associated with onion or tylenol toxicity in dogs? Heinz bodies
What are the normal percentages of heinz bodies in felines? 2-3%
What are the immature RBCs that contain organells/ribosomes that are lost in the mature cell? Reticulocyte
What are the 2 normal forms of reticulocytes in felines? Aggregate form and Punctate form
Aggregated reticulocytes mature into what form within __________ hours. 24
True or false. The punctate form for reticulocytes are unique to cats. True
How many granules are within a punctate reticulocyte? 2-8
How long do punctate reticulocytes circulate for before all of the ribosomes are lost? 7-10 days
Non-nucleated cells containing RNA can be easily seen when stained with what? methylene blue
What type of cell will you see with non-regenerative anemia? Reticulocytes
What type of cell will you see with regenerative anemia? Howell-Jolly Bodies
What is the youngest of the reticulocytes? Aggregated then Punctuate
What two reticulocytes are found NORMALLY in cats? Aggregated and Punctuated
If you only see the Punctuate form of reticuloctyes on a blood smear what condition does this indicate? Non-regenerative anemia
Define Myeloproliferative Diseases: a group of diseases of the bone marrow in which excess cells are produced.
Give an example of a Myeloproliferative disease: -Chronic myelogenous leukemia -Polycythemia vera -Primary myelofibrosis (also called chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis). -Essential thrombocythemia -Chronic neutrophilic leukemia -Chronic eosinophilic leukemia
Created by: fadedfaithless



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