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History of ERT

Enhanced Reproductive Technologies

Aristotle 384 BC "Generation of Animals" -first comprehensive treatise on reproduction -fetus from menstrual blood -started epigenesist (parts come from each gender and each had to be stimulated) vs. preformation arguement.
Herophilus 200 BC "female testis" -saw that animals had some form of testis
Arabian Horse Breeders 1300 -folk tale -steal Arab horses to insult Arab chief, stole semen & put in female=offspring looked like stallion -beginning of AI???
Gabriello Fallopius 1500 -fallopian tubes -described the oviduct -Looked at Herophilus -saw the tube coming off the testis.
Coiter 1573 discovered and described the corpeus luteum (residual of ovulating follicle) -Looked at ovary and saw bumps CL
Nicolas 1664 -drew a picture of a sperm with a preformed human structure -homunculus
Sterno 1667 observation that ovary was female teste
Francesco Redi 1668 -disproved Aristotle's theories (meat in jars) and put forth theory of epigenesis (progressive growth) -maggots, cheese cloth, deposit eggs -re-examining early ideas.
De Graaf 1672 Graafian antral follicle (big cavity-contains egg-prior to ovulation) & ova in rabbit oviducts -function following form
Ham & van Leeuwenhoek 1677 -microscope-human (ability to see more) -sperm animacules (parasites living in semen having nothing to do w/reproduction) -later believed in preformation school
Casper Wolf 1759 -epigenesis theory -used chich embryo to destroy the preformation theory -parts of chick embryo take shape, develop into parts.
John Hunter 1776 human AI? and studied development of child from fetus to birth -not a good connection (human physician)
Spallanzani 1780 canine AI (sperm were fertilizing agents) -Father of modern AI. -1st evidence of sperm in reproduction -filtered toad semen would not fertilize eggs.
Spallanzani 1803 cooled spermatozoa - Canine AI Great deal of success -only limited viability -used snow to cool to preserve to transport.
Dumas 1825 -proved sperm necessary for fertilization of rabbit oocytes (not parasites) -needed sperm and oocytes for reproduction.
von Baer 1827 -identified ovum in follicle -never knew there was an egg. Only knew egg from ovary and ovaduct no idea about being in a follicle until ____
Dumas 1827 -ovum and sperm unite in oviduct -fertilization
Schwann 1839 -recognized the egg was a cell -1st observation
Avon Kolliker 1840's -described the formation of sperm within the testis -believed the sperm excited the egg to develop.
Pasteur 1864 destroyed theory of spontanious generation
Oscar Hertwig 1876 demonstrated sperm entry into egg (each cell contributes a single cell using sea urchins
van Beneden 1883 1st described the behavior of chromosomes in fertilized eggs (nematodes)
Everette Milais 1884 -commercial canine AI -helped others get their hunting canines bred.
Roux 1888 -father of experimental biology -experiments using partial frog eggs to monitor embryo development -destruction of 1 cell of 2 cell embryo -1/2embryo -transpotent (blasomere)
Walter Heape 1897 rabbit embryo transfer -collect from donor, into recipient to have another mother for the offspring -insertion of semen caused ovulation.
Driesch 1900 -life from single cells -"daughter cells" of fertilized eggs from sea urchins -final proof of life developing from a single cell.
Ivanoff 1900 bovine, ovine and equine AI -Zarr, Russian, war horses
Heape 1905 gonadal activity is dependent on generative ferment produced by non gonadal source -endocrinolgy, hormones
Bayliss and Starling 1905 "hormone theory" -certain tissues in body create chemicals that are produced throughout the body for reproduction. Haven't found yet, just a theory.
Stevens & WIlson 1905 -sex determination with chromosomes -determined males decide sex of offspring (XY)
Marshall 1910 classic "Physiology of Reproduction" -1st textbook
Marshall and Hammond 1912 "The Breeding Industry" -drew attention to various factors affecting reproductive efficiency in farm animals -talked about nutrition, temperature, seasonality to breed animals to our betterment.
Japanese 1914 AI horses-wanted horses for their emperor.
Amantea 1914 AV-Artificial vagina- to collect ejaculate -developed in dogs bc of libido -change size, can do any male
Allen and Doisey 1922 -isolated estrogen -out of ovary -gonads produce hormones as well
Gallagher & Koch 1928 isolated testosterone -out of testes -gonads produce hormones as well
Nicholas 1933 -embryo transfer in rat -try to understand cycle of female
Commercial AI cooperative 1936 Denmark -bovine AI cooperative -sell semen, can take superior gametes to produce superior offspring.
E.J. Perry U.S. 1938 -brought bovine AI cooperative to U.S. -not everyone could afford semen so pool funds and distribute semen.
Electroejaculators 1940 -ejaculation is a reflex effect(spinal cord) -place electric shock in rectum =get ejaculate
Phillips & Lardy 1940's -ejaculate phosphate diluent -tried to improve quality to extend the viability of semen
Sorensen 1940 -glass ampule semen storage -eventually replaced by straws
Salisbury 1941 -Na citrate diluent (dilutes semen) -can see sperm now, can evaluate for viability
Almquist 1942 Penicillin -if the process wasn't clean in obtaining the ejaculate, then microbes would be placed in females.
Parks & Polge -cyroperservation-glycerol -snow would kill sperm w/ice crystals. so substitute water w/ glycerol and perserves longer. ~5K-6K years (half-life) -only that long because of gamma rays and electrons...amt of DNA that can be damaged.
Warwick & Berry 1949 Embryo transfer in sheep and goats
Yallow 1950 RIA assay -radioimmunoassay -regulate hormone concentrations @ any given time.
Chang 1951 sperm capacitation
Willett 1951 ET in cattle
Marden & Chang 1952 -1st international shipment of cooled embryos
American Breeders service (ABS)1957 -liquid nitrogen -system transfer semen-onto farm-tanks-farmers can thaw when needed
Chang 1959 -birth of IVF rabbits -bind sperm and egg in test tube
Continental straw 1964 1.2cc
French straw 1964 .5cc
Mini straw 1968 .25cc
Wittingham 1968 IVF of murine oocytes
Graham 1969 cell fusion as an approach to inserting donor nucleus for cloning embryos. -nucleus from cell to another cell w.a removed nucleus, can take over the cell (cloning method)
Alberta Livestock Transplant 1971 1st commercial ET company for farm animals
Whittingham 1972 1st frozen murine embryos (long term)
Wilmut & Rowson "Frosty" -1st frozen calf born
IETS formed 1974 J. of Theriogenolgy
1976 non-surgical collection of bovine embryos -no limit now, don't have to wait for animal to fully heal
Iritani & Niwa 1977 IVF of IVM bovine oocytes (Japan) -don't have to wait for female to ovulate.
Steptoe and Edwards..Louise Brown 1978 IVF human- "first test-tube baby"
Gorden 1980 1st transgenic(genes of another species) -SV40 DNA injected into mouse embryo. -learned to inject certain virus -ca place an awesome gene into to create a superior breed.
Brackett 1981 1st IVF calf born from ovulated mature oocyte
Willadsen chimera (mouse) -2animals brought together by 2 embryos cut in half -DNAS don't combine. -GEET. male could inseminate female goat and sheep.
Created by: whatanlines26



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