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Ch 13 Nervous System

A&P Nervous System

_______________ is the study of the nervous system. Neurology
______________ and ______________ are the main divisions of the nervous system. Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
The CNS consists of what parts of the body? The brain and spinal cord.
The PNS consists of what parts of the body? Everything but the the brain and the spinal cord.
____________, _________________, and ______________ are the functions of the nervous system. Sensory, Integrating, and Motor
___________ is the basic functional unit of the nervous system. Neuron
True or false. The neuron has a high oxygen requirement. True
Neurons can not reproduce but in some cases can _________________. Regenerate
____________ are the supporting cells to neurons, and wrap around the axon. Neuroglia or Glial Cells
_______________ are more numerous than neurons and do not transmit impulses. Neuroglia
Name the 3 primary structures of the neuron. Soma, dendrites, axon.
What is another name for the soma, or central cell body? Perikaryon
What part of a neuron conducts nerve impulses? Axons
what is another name for secondary cells? Effector cells
_______________ cover axons, and are an extension of the glial cells. Myelin
___________________ are myelin wrapped cells found outside of the brain and spinal cord. Schwann cells
____________________ are myelin wrapped cells found within the brain and spinal cord. Oligodendrocytes
__________________ are the gaps in the myelin sheath. Nodes of Ranvier
_______________________, _____________________, and _________________ are the three ways you can organize the nervous system. Anatomical, Direction, and Function
The ____________ _______________ is the space between the terminal knobs of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron. Synaptic Cleft
True or false. Spinal nerves emerge from the brain. False (From the spinal cord)
____________ nerves conduct impulses away from the CNS. Efferent
____________ nerves conduct impulses toward the CNS. Afferent
Afferent nerves are also called _________________. Sensory nerves.
Efferent nerves are also called _________________. Motor nerves.
Name the 3 cranial nerves that conduct both afferent and efferent impulses. -Optic -Oculomotor -Glossopharyngeal
____________________ refers to the functional organization of the nervous system that is under voluntary control. Somatic Nervous System
__________________ branches into the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. Autonomic Nervous System
The resting state refers to _____________________________. When the neuron is not stimulated
_______________________ keeps potassium in and sodium out of the cell. Sodium-Potassium Pump
For every ____ sodiums, there are ___ potassiums. 3;2
Define: Action potential A change in electrical charge from a negative to a positive.
Define: Resting state When neuron is not stimulated ( still working to maintain resting state)
Define: Threshold Stimulus Must be sufficient to make the neuron respond and make complete depolarization
Def: All or nothing principle Neuron must depolarize completely or not at all
What is the Refractory period? Time when neuron is not sensitive to a stimulus
Def: Absolute Refractory When no amount of stimulus can elicit another AP
Def Relative Refractory Strong stimulus my elicit a response
What does a local anesthetic do? Blocks the propagation of the action potential
Give an example of a local anesthetic drug name Lidocaine
Def: Synapse A junction between 2 neurons or a neuron and a target cell.
How are neurotransmitters released? Depolarization reaches the the axon terminal, and release neurotransmitters
Where are neurotransmitters released from? Calcium channels
What is a Neurotransmitter? A chemical substance that is released and causes the transfer of the impulses to nerves
What are the 2 Types of neurotransmitters? Excitatory and Inhibitory
Excitatory neurotransmitters do what? Influx of Na+ postsynaptic membrane move towards threshold ( more positive)
Inhibitory Neurotransmitter do what? postsynaptic membrane move away from threshold ( more negative)
Acetylcholinesterase does what? Breaks down acetylcholine ( found on synaptic membrane)
Monoamine oxidase Does what? Breaks down norepinephrine
COMT (Catechol-O-methyl transferase) Does what? Breaks down norepinephrine that is not reabsorbed
The Cerebrum is responsible for what? For Higher order behaviors ( learning, intelligence, awareness)
What is the Cerebellum responsible for? Coordinated movement, balance, posture and reflexes.
Brain stem is responsible for what? Basic function of the body (subconscious, autonomic)
Autonomic nervous system function? Controls the autonomic functions at a subconscious level
When is the resting potential restored? During repolarization
Saltatory means _______________. to leap
Where do saltatory contractions take place? Nodes of Ranvier
What neuron is responsible for bringing the depolarization wave to the synapse? Presynaptic neuron
What neuron contains receptors for the neurotransmitter? Postsynaptic neuron
What is the slightly enlarged bulb at the end of an axon called? terminal bouton (axon terminal)
What type of neurotransmitter has a lower threshold? excitatory neurotransmitter
What type of neurotransmitter has a higher threshold? inhibitory neurotransmitter
What neurotransmitter can be excitatory or inhibitory depending on its location? Acetylcholine
What are the 3 neurotransmitters included in the Catecholamines class? -Norephinephrine -Epinephrine -Dopamine
What are the 4 primary structures of the brain? -cerebrum -cerebellum -diencephalon -brain stem
What are the 2 components of the cerebrum? Gray matter and white matter.
What is the cerebral cortex or outer layer of the brain called? Gray matter
What are the fibers beneath the cortex and corpus callosum called? White matter
What part of the brain is responsible for higher order behaviors? Cerebrum
Define gyri. the folds in the cerebral hemispheres
Define sulci. The shallow grooves that divide the hemispheres into lobes
Define fissure. Deep grooves that seperate the gyri.
What fissure seperates the cerebrum into left and right hemispheres? Longitudinal fissure
What structure of the brain houses and protects the thalamus, hypothalamus, and pituitary glands? Diencephalon
What are the 3 parts of the brain stem? -Medulla oblongata -Pons -Midbrain
True or false. Many of the cranial nerves originate from the brain stem. True
Define meninges. The connective tissue layers that surround the brain and spinal cord.
What is contained within the meninges? Blood vessels, fluid and fat.
What are the 3 layers of the meninges? Duramater, Arachnoid, and Pia Mater
Where is the cerebrospinal fluid located? In the subarachnoid space
What layer of the meninges is tough and fibrous? Dura mater
What layer of the meninges is delicate and resembles a spiderweb? Arachnoid
What seperates the capillaries in the brain from the nervous tissue? Blood-Brain barrier
True or false. Capillary walls in the brain have fenestrations. False.
What prevents many drugs, proteins, ions, and other molecule from readily passing from the blood and into the brain? Blood-brain barrier
How many cranial nerves are there? 12
What are the 2 primary structures of the spinal cord? Medulla and Cortex
The medulla of the spinal cord is composed of what? Gray matter
The outer portion of the spinal cord, or cortex contains what? White matter
What types of nerve roots emerge from the spinal cord as spinal nerves? Dorsal and Ventral
Dorsal nerve roots contain what type of fibers? Sensory
Ventral nerve roots contain what type of fibers? Motor
The spinal nerve contains what type of neurons? Motor and sensory
The nerve for the the sympathetic nervous system emerges from where? Thoracic and lumbar vertebral regions (Thoracolumbar)
The nerve for the parasympathetic nervous system emerges from where? Brain and sacrum (Cranial-Sacral)
Afferent nerves are also know as _______ nerves and conduct impulses ____________ the CNS. Sensory nerves; Toward
Efferent nerves are also know as _______ nerves and conduct impulses ____________ the CNS. Motor nerves; Away
What is in charge of keeping Potassuim in the cell and sodium out? Sodium-Potassium Pump
What refers to the number of potassium ions down the inside of a cell is versus the outside? Resting Membrane Potential (Alwyas expressed as a negative number)
What is depolarization? Both charges come together.
What is repolarization? A change in the charge
Saltatory conduction occurs at the ______________ of each neuron covered in ________. Nodes of Ranvier; Myelin
What 2 Chemicals break down Norepinephrine? COMT and MAO
What three glands are housed in the Diencephalon? Pituitary, Hypothalamus, and Thalamus
What is the primary function of the meninges? To protect
What is the primary function of the CSF? To Cushion
What is the largest portion of the brain called? Cerebrum
What is the thinest layer of the meninges? Pia Mater
True or false. A change in CSF can result in vomiting. True
What is the most unique characteristic in regards to the capillary walls of the brain? They have no fenestrations.
True or false. Tight junctions are not present in the blood-brain barrier. False
Where do all 12 of the cranial nerves arise from? Brain stem
What is the primary neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system? Norepinephrine
What is another term for the Sympathetic nervous system? Adrenergic
Sensory is controlled by which spinal cord root? Dorsal
Motor is controlled by which spinal cord root? Ventral
What are the 3 receptors for ephinephrine? Alpha 1, Beta 1 and Beta 2
What is caused by the Alpha 1 receptor? Vasoconstriction
What is caused by the Beta 1 receptor? Increased heart rate.
What is caused by the Beta 2 receptor? Bronchodilation.
What is another term for parasympathetic nervous system? Cholinergic.
What is the primary neurostransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system? Acetylcholine
What are the two type of cholinergic neurons? Nicotinic receptors and Muscarinic receptors.
What are the 4 primary types of reflexes? 1-Somatic 2-Autonomic 3-Contralateral 4-Ipsilateral
Name a type of contralateral reflex. Crossed extensor
Name a type of ipsilateral reflex. Toe pinch test and a knee tap
Contralateral refers to what side of the body? Opposite sides
Ipsilateral refers to what side of the body? Same side
What are the 5 components of the reflex arc? 1- Sensory receptor 2-Sensory Neuron 3-Interneuron 4-Motor neuron 5-Target organ
Hyporeflexive occurs _________________. within the CNS
Hyperflexive occurs ___________________. Outside of the CNS
IV = ___ 4
V = __ 5
VI = __ 6
VII = __ 7
VIII = ___ 8
IX = ____ 9
X = ____ 10
XI = ___ 11
XII = ___ 12
What is CN# 1? Olfactory
What is CN# 2? Optic
What is CN# 3? Oculomotor
What is CN# 4? Trochlear
What is CN# 5? Trigeminal
What is CN# 6? Abducent
What is CN# 7? Facial
What is CN# 8? Vestibulocochlear
What is CN# 9? Glossopharyngeal
What is CN# 10? Vagus
What is CN# 11? Accessory
What is CN# 12? Hypoglossal
True or false. Neuroglial can conduct impulses. False
What is another name for the fatty substance known as white matter? Myelin
What must occur in order for there to be an action potential? Depolarization
During depolarization what ion channels are open? Sodium
Created by: fadedfaithless



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