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Exam 1 Psych, Soc, B

PHC 6410 Exam 1 Material (UF)- TERMS

QuestionAnswer
Health A state of well-being with physical, cultural, psychosocial, economic and spiritual attributes, not simply the absence of illness.
Illness The patient's subjective experience of physical or mental states, whether based on some underlying disease pathology or not.
Disease Abnormalities in the structure and function of organs and body systems, as defined by biomedicine. *NOT DISPERSED EQUALLY among the population
Socially Constructed Symptoms may have different cultural meanings.
Health Promotion The process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve their health.
Risk Factors Any factors that increase the probability that a negative outcome will occur.
Protective Factors Any factors that decrease the probability that a negative outcome will occur.
Vulnerable Populations May have high level of risk factors and/or low level of protective factors.
Medicalization A process by which nonmedical problems become defined and treated as medical problems, usually in terms of illness or disorders. Sin > Crime > Sickness (Gambling, Addiction)
Theory Making testable statements about how we hypothesize things are related in the world.
Construct An abstraction. (Political, Cultural, Social Structure, Neighborhood, interpersonal, Person) > Causes of behavior ie Belief.
Theoretical Statement Expressing something about the relationship between two or more variables.
Hypothesis A testable statement about the relationship between variables.
Paradigm The basic set of assumptions that provide the framework within which scientists work. Models of good research that provide agreed upon methods for the investigation of new problems.
Ecological Models A complex system of several domains (policy and regulation, sociocultural factors, the physical environment, and individual factors) which influence health behaviors.
Person-Environment Fit The degree of fit between people's biological, behavioral, and socio-cultural needs and the environmental resources available to them as a key determinant of well-being.
Leverage Point Places in a system where force can be applied
Health Inequalities The burden of death and disease is much heavier for the poor than for the wealthy; linked to debt and trade injustice.
Health Gradient Inequalities in the health of a population (strongly related to SES and wealth).
Culture (Edberg) An ongoing collective framework, developed over time by human societies and groups, for integrating meaning with events, actions, and ways of life.
Ethnicity The cultural practices, language, cuisine and traditions used to distinguish groups of persons- not biological or physical differences.
Health Disparities Macro factors (such as unequal income distribution) lead to social inequalities, which in combination with life stressors yield inequalities in health.
Mediating Factors Influence health behaviors.
Racism An ideology of inferiority that is used to justify unequal treatment (discrimination).
Social Class People's position in the hierarchy of economic and political power.
Syndemic (Edberg) Several epidemics that exist together because conditions promote their coexistence.
Social Ecological Framework Models of health behavior characterized by multiple levels of influence on behavior and an emphasis on environmental and policy influences.
Community Any group of individuals sharing values and institutions, bounded and unbounded.
Health Social Movements Collective changes to medical policy and politics, belief systems, research and practice that include an array of formal and informal organizations, supporters, networks, and media.
Health Access Movements Seek equitable access to health care and improved provision of health care services.
Moderator Influence personal characteristics.
Weathering conceptualizes the physical consequences of exposures to stressors on individual health outcomes. (ie neighborhood poverty on women's reproductive outcomes.
Built Environment Environments that are human modified, including homes, schools, workplaces, highways, urban sprawl, and air pollution. Includes public policy, political action, and access, for example to fresh food, physical activity, and even leisure time.
Built Environment Example The presence or absence of a sidewalk in a suburban neighborhood is part of the built environment, but so is the fact that poor urban neighborhoods have too many fast food outlets and too few grocery stores that stock fresh fruits and vegetables.
Social Influence Direct or indirect effects of one person or another; usually confined to conformity, imitation, and persuasion.
Subjective Norm Social pressure; what others want me to do. Use: Theory of Reasoned Action/Planned Behavior.
Injunctive Norm What I should do; internalized belief about what is the right (normative) thing to do in a situation.
Descriptive Norm What others so; the number or percent of others who are engaging in the behavior. Think of the Hours Studying Poll in class- everyone overestimated their peer's study time.
Embodied Health Movements Address disease, disability, or illness experience by challenging science or etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.
Conformity A change in behavior or belief as a result of real or imagined group pressure.
Compliance Conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with social pressure while privately disagreeing.
Autokinetic Effect The apparent movement of a stationary point of light in a dark room.
Thought Listing Detailing in writing one's thinking.
Normative Social Influence Because people want to be viewed favorably by others, individuals may express stronger opinions if they discover people share their views.
Informational Social Influence Group discussion elicits a pooling of ideas, most of which favor the dominant viewpoint.
Theory of Reasoned Action Person's beliefs that the behavior leads to certain outcomes (creating an attitude toward the behavior) and a person's perception of what others think (normative) of the behavior (creating subjective norms), leading to intentions regarding the behavior.
Theory of Planned Behavior Person's beliefs that the behavior leads to certain outcomes (creating an attitude toward the behavior), normative beliefs which create subjective norms, AND CONTROL BELIEFS & PERCEIVED FACILITATION, leading to intentions regarding the behavior.
Social Cognitive Theory AKA Social Learning Theory Behaviors are learned through observation of others engaged in the behavior. One is more likely to imitate behaviors of those with high contact.
Modeling Attention, Symbolic Encodement, Physically, and reinforcement.
Socialization Theory Norms and behaviors are learned in social contexts, and relational bonds serve as channels of information about norms and behaviors. Example: Gender roles influenced by the media
Social Identity Theory Individuals (teens particularly) adopt as their own norms and behavior those that are central to the social identity of the group.
Social Network Theory Focus is on the relational ties within a social system. Individuals within a social network interact and influence each other; relations serve as channels for information sharing.
Friendship Homophily Perceived similarities lead to liking someone; liking someone leads to perceived similarities. Pressures are normative and teens are active in peer selection.
Social Comparisons Explain how individuals evaluate their own opinions and desires by comparing themselves to others.
Downward Comparison Defensive tendency to evaluate oneself with a comparison group whose troubles are more serious than one's own. This tends to occur when threatened people look to others who are less fortunate than themselves. Emphasizes positive effects of comparisons.
Upward Comparison Individuals compare themselves to others who are deemed socially above them in some way. People intentionally compare themselves with others so that they can make their self-views more positive.
Belief Information a person has about other people, objects, or issues; may or may not be factual.
Primitive Belief Associates an attribute with an object on the basis of personal experience.
Informational Belief Based on knowledge gained by the verbalization of others.
Inferential Belief Goes beyond directly observable events; a link with other beliefs.
Expectancy-Value Theories Assumption that people will engage in healthy behavior if 1) they value the outcome and 2) they think the behavior is likely to result in that outcome.
Subjective expected utility A useful tool that allows one to evaluate different choices based on a weighted assessment of attributes (Fiat vs VW vs Prius).
Health Belief Model Behavior is determined by perceptions of costs and benefits if one performed the behavior and about one's ability to perform the behavior.
Perceived Susceptibility How likely a person thinks they are to get Disease X.
Perceived Severity How serious a person thinks Disease X is.
Perceived Threat What a person thinks might happen if they had Disease X.
Perceived Benefits ie saving money, better health, better relationships...
Perceived Barriers ie difficulty of quitting, fear of failure...
Cues to Action ie company promotions or clubs, insurance policies...
Self-Efficacy People's belief in their own capabilities to produce desired effects by their own actions.
Attitude General and enduring positive or negative feelings about some person, object, or issue. Dispositions to evaluate objects favorably or unfavorably.
Schema An organized, structured set of cognitions (knowledge about a concept or stimulus).
Modeling Asserts that people can learn new attitudes and behaviors by observing live or symbolic models.
Personality The consistent, stable, and distinctive traits and behaviors that characterize individuals.
Learned Helplessness The primary cause is the recognition that response and outcome are independent.
Sensation Seeking Type T Personality. Thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking, disinhibition, and boredom susceptibility.
Self-Esteem A value of personal worth.
Optimism Expecting more good than bad; a positive outlook.
Negative Urgency The tendency to act rashly in response to a negative mood.
Positive Urgency The tendency to act rashly in response to a positive mood.
Created by: 1437437180