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Ch. 11 Digestive

A&P Digestive System

What is another name for the alimentary canal? Digestive tract
Define lumen. The opening in the middle of the intestinal tract or any hollow organ.
True or false. Anything within the lumen is considered to be outside of the body. True
What are the 2 types of stomachs? Monogastric and complex.
Animals that have fermentation compartments in addition to the stomach are said to have which type of stomach? Complex
What are the 5 functions of the GI tract? 1-Prehension 2-Mastication 3-Chemical digestion 4-Absorbtion of nutrients 5-Waste elimination
Define prehension. Grasping of food with the teeth or lips.
Gastro refers to what organ? Stomach
Entero refers to what organ? Intestines
What are the 4 layers of the GI tract? -Mucosa -Submucosa -Muscles -Serosa
What is the outermost layer of the GI tract? Serosa
Define mesentery. Sheets of connective tissue
What type of tissue lines the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and anus? Stratified squamous.
What type of tissue allows for absorbtion within the GI tract? Simple columnar
What type of muscle controls defecation? Skeletal muscle
What type of muscle is involved in the middle portion of the GI tract? Smooth muscle
Name the two types of contractions involved in movement of food through the digestive system. Peristalsis contractions and segmental contractions
What is another name for the mouth/oral cavity? Buccal cavity
Name the 7 primary structures of the mouth. -Lips -Tongue -Teeth -Salivary -Hard palate -Soft palate -Oropharynx
Most animals have how many matching pairs of salivary glands? 3
Name the 3 sets of salivary glands. -Parotid -Mandibular -Sublingual
True or false. Salivary glands are controlled by the autonomic nervous system. True
What structure of the mouth increases surface area of the food that is exposed to digestive processes? Teeth
Lingual refers to what portion of the mouth? The inner surface of the lower arcade
Palatal refers to what portion of the mouth? The inner surface of the upper arcade
Labial refers to what portion of the mouth? Rostral or outer surface of both arcades.
Buccal refers to what portion of the mouth? Caudal or outer surface of the teeth. Towards the cheek.
Occlusal refers to what portion of the mouth? The surface that grind with other teeth.
What are the 2 types of teeth shapes? Carnivore (Pointed) and herbivore (Flat)
What are the 4 types of teeth and the letter that represents them? Incisors (I), Canines (C), Premolars (P), and Molars (M)
What teeth are referred to when in lowercase letters? Deciduous or the baby teeth
Which teeth do ruminants not have and what will you find replacing them? They do not have upper incisors or canines. They have a dental pad instead.
What is the dental formula of a canine puppy and how many teeth do they have? i3/3 c1/1 p3/3 (28 teeth)
What is the dental formula of a canine adult and how many teeth do they have? I3/3 C1/1 P4/4 M2/3 (42 Teeth)
What is the dental formula of a feline kitten and how many teeth do they have? i3/3 c1/1 p3/2 (26 teeth)
What is the dental formula of a feline adult and how many teeth do they have? I3/3 C1/1 P3/2 M1/1 (30 teeth)
What is the dental formula of a equine adult and how many teeth do they have? I3/3 C1/1 P3-4/3 M3/3 (40-42 teeth)
What is the dental formula of a porcine adult and how many teeth do they have? I3/3 C1/1 P4/4 M3/3 (44 teeth)
What is the dental formula of a bovine adult and how many teeth do they have? I0/3 C0/1 P3/3 M3/3 (32 teeth)
When using the triadian system for dental charting which number is given to which quadrant? 100- Upper right 200- Upper left 300- Lower left 400- Lower right
When you are charting during a dental and you circle a specific tooth, what are you stating about that tooth? The tooth is missing.
When you are charting during a dental and you X out a specific tooth, what are you stating about that tooth? The tooth was extracted.
What is another name of the upper fourth premolar? Carnassial tooth
When referring to teeth 104, 204, 304 and 404, you are talking about what tooth of the animal? The canine
True or false. The teeth are living structures. True
The apex of the tooth faces what structure of the oral cavity? The gums
The pulp of the teeth lies just below what? The dentin
What is the hardest substance found within the human body? Enamel
What structure helps to fasten a tooth to a body socket? Cememtum
Define supernumary. An animal with more teeth than one should have.
At what age might you notice the adult canine teeth growing on your puppy? 6 months
Dental Prophylaxis/ Prevention should be started at what age? 9 months old
What are the 4 functions of the oral cavity? 1- Prehension 2- Macticate 3- Chemically digest 4- Swallowing
What are the 2 common enzymes found in the digestive system? Amylase and Lipase
What digestive enzyme is found in omnivores but has never been found in carnivores? Amylase
What 2 enzymes are involved with a cow's digestive tract? Sodium bicarbonate and phosphate
How much saliva can a single cattle produce in a single day? 25-30 gallons
Which animals can't vomit? Horses and rabbits
Hooking an animal up to an IV of Everclear would only be done when what has happened? The animal has swallowed something corrosive or harmful.
What type of diet must be given to a patient with a megaesophagus? Liquids only
What are the 5 primary parts of the stomach? -Cardia -Fundus -Body -Pylorus -Plyoric Antrum
Which sphincter in the body allows the chyme from stomach to the duodenum? Pyloric Sphincter
Define Chyme Digested stomach contents
There are 3 key cells involved in the stomach, what are they? Parietal, Chief cells, and mucous cells
What do Parietal cells produce? Hydrochloric Acid
What do Chief cells produce? Pepsinogen --> Pepsin--> To breaks proteins into AAs
Where is the G-cell located? Pyloric antrum
What does the G-Cell produce? The hormone Gastrin
Define gastric ulcers Erosions of epithelium of the stomach.
Define Rugae. Long folds in the stomach.
True or false. The Pyloric Sphincter stays partially open at all times. True
What type of muscles assist in the muscular layer of the stomach? Circular and longitudinal
True or false. Whaen the body and fundus of the stomach contract, the Pyloric Antrum is relaxing. True
True or false. The Abomasum and the simple stomach that dogs have are two different stomachs. False.
What is cranial nerver number 10? Vagus Nerve
Name the relex that prevents the stomach from emptying until the intestines are able to handle more. Enterogastric relex
What is the pH of a monogastric stomach? 2-3pH
What cells create the forcefield that surrounds the stomach making it act as a buffer against HCl? Mucus Cells
What is the primary function of chief cells? To break down proteins in the stomach.
What is the primary functions of Cholecystokinin (CCK)? To break down fats in the stomach and to stop contractions of the Anthrum.
What are the 3 receptors that regulate acid production? -Acetylcholine -Gastrin -Histamine
What increases HCl production? Gastrin
Which chemical, that is also a recepter, is chemically associated with inflammation? Histamine
True or false. Intestines have the higher pH when compared to the stomach? True
True or false. The stomach has a lower pH when compaired to the intestined? True
Where is the secretin gland located? Intestines
What two prostaglandins were discussed in class and are both beneficial to the body? PGE and PGI
What does NSAID stand for? Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory drug
Name at least 3 NSAIDs. -Ibuprofen -Acetaminophen -Meloxicam
What do NSAIDs, once taken, attack? All prostaglandins in the body.
Define regurgitation. Spitting up undigested food.
Define vomiting. Dry heaving at times, spitting up digested food.
Define Erucation. Burping. An expulsion of built up CO2or methane gas.
What is an ideal range of a ruminants pH level in the stomach? 5.8-6.4pH
Why do ruminants have higher pH levels that that of your typical monogastric? Bacteria levels creating it to be more basic.
In which chamber of the complex stomach does fermentation occur? Rumen
Which disease is associated with the reticulum annd involves a magnet? Hardware disease.
How long do cows spend chewing their cud? 6-8 hours. Approx.
Define VFAs. Volatile Fatty Acids
What produces VFAs? Bacteria.
What converts proteins to peptides? A protease
What are the only chambers a cow can regurgitate from? Rumen and reticulum
Which chamber absorbs VFAs and water? Abomasum
What is considered to be the true stomach when referring to ruminants? Abomasum
What disease affects the villi of the GI tract? Parvovirus
What is another name for the cecum? Blind pouch
What is another name for the vestigeal cecum? Appendix
Define crypts as pertaining to the villi. The depressions between each villi.
Name the 3 parts of the small intestine. -Duodenum -Jejunum -Ileum
What is the fetal bypass structure in ruminants for those that suckle? The milk when suckled ONLY, will travel directly to the last two chambers, moving alongside the esphageal groove.
Name the 3 electrolytes. -Sodium -Chloride -Potassium
True or false: All electrolytes can be readily absorbed. True
What attaches directly to B12 solely for absorbtion? Intrinsic factor
Define Ileus. A decreased movement of the ingesta
How many ways can protein be broken down for ingestion? 5
Name the process of breaking protein down that must be slit in the middle to have their bonds broken. Trypsin, Chymotrypsin and Elastase
Name the processes that break down proteins by breaking them off at a specific end. Aminopeptidase and Carboxypeptidase
True or false. C-O-O-H Is the carboxy end of an amino acid. True
True or false. NH2 is the amino end of an amino acid. True
How many roots does the carnassial tooth have? 3
Teeth #108 and 208 are also referred to as what teeth? Carnassial teeth
Name the condition that occurs when the esophagus has lost muscle tone. Megaesophagus
True or false. Pepsin only works in high pH levels. False. Low pH levels.
_____________________ and mucus help to neutralize HCl by acting as a buffer system on the stomach's lining. Bicarbonate Ion
The liver converts ___________ into usable glucose. Propionic acid
Where are VFAs absorbed in the complex stomach before being converted by the liver? Rumen and reticulum
Name the 4 enzymes found in the cell membrane of microvilli that convert sugar. -Sucrase -Maltase -Isomaltase -Lactase
__________________ destroys the fat globule from the inside out and is secreted by the liver. Bile acids
What are the 4 fat soluble vitamins? A, D, E and K
What are the 2 methods of breaking down fat globules? Emulsification and Michelle
True or false. Haustra refer to the individual segments/sections of the colon. True
True or false. Megacolon results in constipation. True
Name 2 ways of treating a patient with a megacolon. -Enema -High fiber diet
Name the 3 parts of the large intestine. -Cecum -Colon -Rectum
During hindgut fermentation, ingesta from the small intestine must pass through which sphincter before entering the cecum? Ileocecal
Which structure seperates the cecum from the colon? Cecocolic orifice
Where does fermentation occur in animals that have hindgut fermentation? Cecum
Name 5 animals that have hindgut fermentation. -Horse -Guinea pig -Swine -Rat -Rabbit
True or false. Surgery can be performed for colic. False.
Name 2 ways you might treat colic. -Increase motility -Use of mineral oil
True or false. The colon is capable of expanding more than the rectum. False
Define defecation. The process of expelling feces.
What is the terminal portion of the large intestine? Rectum
How many sphincters are involved with the anus? 2
Name the 2 sphincters involved with the anus. -Internal (Involuntary) -External (Voluntary)
Where is bile produced? The liver.
Where is bile stored? The gallbladder.
True or false. Anal glands are truely glandular. False.
Name the 2 liver enzymes. -ALT -ALKPHOS
Define ALT. Alanine transferase
Define ALKPHOS. Alkaline Phosphate
True or false. The liver can rejuvenate. True
Where are bile acids produced? The liver.
Name the test that is used when checking liver function due to an increase in enzymes. Bile Acid Test
What organ contains endocrine glands, exocrine glands and produces enzymes? Pancreas
Where is bicarbonate secreted? Pancreas
What is referred to as the beta cells? Insulin
What is referred to as the alpha cells? Glucagon
Lack of insulin leads to what condition? Diabetes Mellitus
Where in the pancreas is insulin produced? Islets of Langerhans
What is released to increase the body's clucose levels? Glucagon
Define EPI. Exocrine Pancreatic Insuffiency
How is EPI treated? Adding a powdered form of digestive enzymes to the animals food.
How do you test for EPI? TLI Test (Trypsin-Like Immunoreactivity)
Created by: fadedfaithless



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