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Non-Energy Nutrients

Non-Energy Producing Nutrients

How many minerals are essential to mammals? 18
Name the two mineral groups. Macrominerals and microminerals
What is another name for microminerals? Trace elements
Define inorganic Not composed of or involving living organisms or their remains.
Define organic Products grown with fertilizers that consist only of plant or natural matter, with no chemical additives.
Which two minerals are usually discussed together because of their closely interrelated actions? Calcium and Phosphorus
Name two structural proteins that are also primary constituents of bone. Calcium and phosphorus
Name the primary functions of phosphorus (5) -Bone and teeth formation -Muscle formation -energy producing nutrient metabolism -reproduction -energy production
Name the disease of young animals due to the failure of calcification of osteoid and cartilage of the bones causing bowing. Rickets
An excess of phosphorus may cause stones. What is the condition called for stones in the bladder? Urinary calculi
HYPERthyroidism is more common in cats or dogs? Cats
HYPOthyroidism is more common in cats or dogs? Dogs
What is the most common hormonal abnormality and is a common disease of aging cats? Hyperthyroidism
What medical condition is a steady contraction of a muscle with distinct twitching or continuous spasms? Tetany
What is the ratio of phosphorus to calcium in the body? 1:1
High levels of what two minerals can cause Wobbler Syndrome? Calcium and Phosphorus
Name the main functions of potassium (4) -Muscle contraction -Nerve impulses -Osmotic Balance -Energy transfer
One with hypokalemia might have a low amount of what in their blood? Potassium
Name the possible signs of excess sodium chloride (6) -Thirst -Pruritus -Constipation -Seizures -Hypertension -Death
Name the functions of magnesium (4) -Component of bone and intercellular fluid -neuromuscular transmission -active component of enzymes -carbs and lipid metabolism
What 2 minerals when in excess cause urinary calculi? magnesium and phosphorus
Zinc is the activator of how many known enzymes? 200
What are the funtions of Zinc (3)? -Skin and tissue healing -Immunity response -Carb and protein metabolism
What condition is also known as pinkeye? Conjunctivitis
Is Zinc toxic or non-toxic? Non-toxic
Which mineral aids in lipid and carb metabolism as well as cell membrane integrity? Manganese
Is manganese toxic or non-toxic? Non-toxic
Which vitamin does selenium interact with to prevent cellular damage? Vitamin E
Name the signs of selenium deficiency (4) -Muscular dystrophy -Reproductive failure -Edema -Renal mineralization
Define edema. Swelling due to an accumulation of fluid in the tissues.
What are the signs of selenium overdose (7) -Vomiting -Staggered gait -Hypersalivation -Decreased appetite -Dyspnea -Garlicky breath -Nail loss
What mineral is known to accumulate in the thyroid? Iodine
What is goiter? Swelling of the thyroid
Fetal reabsorption and apathy are common signs of what type of mineral deficiency? Iodine
Which gland is at the most risk from radiation? Thyroid
How are macromineral measured? Percentage
How are microminerals measured? parts per million (ppm)
What mineral is a primary component of hemoglobin and aids in O2 transport? Iron
What is the most common sign of an iron deficiency? Anemia
Hepatitis is a condition caused by what type of mineral excess? Copper
Define antagonist. One is acting against the other.
Define synergist. Two are working together.
what is the largest and heaviest component of the body? Water
What are the functions of water (7)? -Effect blood pressure -Temperature regulation -Transport -Lubricates -Balances electrolytes -Absorption/metabolism -Filtration
What percentage of weight does water make up in a newborn puppy? 84%
What percentage of weight does water make up in an adult dog? 50-60%
What the formula for daily required water in cats and dogs 30mL/lb/day
Name the 4 primary ways the body disposes of water. -Urine -Feces -Insensible losses -Sweating
What is the ratio of water to dried food for cats and dogs? 2.5:1 (Every 24hours)
What occurs at 4-5% dehydration level? Skin turgidity is lost
What occurs at 7% dehydration level? Eyes are sunken and skin turgity is lost.
What occurs at 10% dehydration level? Eyes are sunken, skin turgity is lost and the patient is in lateral recumbency.
Define PCV. Packed Cell Volume.
What are the 4 fat soluble vitamins? A,D,E and K
What are the 2 categories of vitamins? Fat soluble and water soluble
What category of vitamins are stored the best within the body? Fat soluble
What category of vitamins are the easiest to overdose on? Fat soluble
Vitamin A is found in what type of foods? -Fish liver oils -Milk -Liver -Egg yolk
Vitamin D is found in what type of foods? -Liver -Fish -Egg yolk -Sunlight
Vitamin E is found in what type of foods? -Wheat germ -Corn -Soybean oil
Vitamin K is found in what type of foods? -Leafy greens -Liver -Fish meal
What category of vitamins can not be stored within the body? Water soluble vitamins
What category of vitamins is rare to overdose on? Water soluble vitamins
Name the B-Complex vitamins (9) -Thiamin -Riboflavin -Niacin -Pyridoxine -Pantothenic acid -Biotin -Folic acid -Cobalamin -Choline
What B-Complex vitamin is dangerous in excess for cats? Niacin
What type of vitamin is ascorbic acid? Vitamin C
What type of foods can you find vitamin c? -Citrus fruits -Dark greens
Which vitamin plays a critical role in blood clotting formation? Vitamin K
Hemorrhaging/Bleeding to death is a result of what type of vitamin deficiency? Vitamin K
What type of rat poison, when ingested by cats, causes fatal hemorrhage? Warfarin
How do antioxidants function? By stabilizing free radicals which would otherwise be destructive.
Which 2 vitamins are also considered antioxidants? Vitamin C and E
Which 3 substances are considered vitamin lookalikes? -Carnitine -Carotenoids -Bioflavonoids
What are the functions of vitamin look-alikes? -Fatty acid metabolism -Support of electron transport -Antioxidant capability
True or false. Vitamin D is converted by sunlight. True
Witamin D works to utlize phosphorus and what other mineral? Calcium
What stabilizes free radicals? Antioxidants
Pansteatitis is a condition in cats who have received what vitamin in excess? Vitamin E
What is another name for Vitamin C? Ascorbic Acid
An excess of vitamin A might cause what condition? Cervical spondylosis
Is vitamin K toxic or nontoxic? Nontoxic
Which vitamin helps with your eyesight, makes immunity god happy and bone reabsorbtion? Vit A
What vitamin is taken for bloodclotting formation? Vit K
What is pansteatitis? A Vitamin E deficiency that causes painful inflammation of adipose tissue and is commonly known as yellow fat disease.
Created by: fadedfaithless



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