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Clin Lab III Wk1-2

Introduction to UA

Name 3 functions of the kidney 1) Maintenance of blood pressure & erythropoiesis, 2) balance water & salts & acid/base status, 3) filter blood of toxins, urea, medications & excess electrolytes
What are the indications of performing a urinalysis Routine screening, Detection of hemolysis, Detection of certain crystals, Early indicator of renal, endocrine, or metabolic disease, Dehydration, Clinical or biochemical evidence of urinary tract disease
What are 3 methods of urine collection? 1) Free catch, 2) Catheterization, 3) Cystocentesis
What's a potential contamination for free catch? Bacterial
What's a potential contamination for catheterization? Cells from urethra wall
What's a potential contamination for cystocentesis? Blood
What are 3 factors that influence urine production? Diet, fluid intake, and physical activity
What is the normal urine production? 1-2ml/kg of body weight/hr
What is frequent urination? Pollakuria
What is increased urine output or production? Polyuria
What is a decrease in output or elimination of urine? Oliguria
How soon should the urinalysis be performed? 30 minutes
If you're unable to perform a UA in time what should be done with the urine? Should be refrigerated
What does gross examination of urine include? Color, odor, transparency/appearance
What color will urine be with an increased specific gravity? Dark yellow
What color will urine be with hemoglobinuria, myoglobinuria, and hematuria? Pink or red
What color will urine be with bilirubinuria or methemoglobinuria? Brown
What color will urine be with certain medications or bacterial infections? Green-blue
What color will urine be with a presence of pus or increased flocculence due to crystals/debris? Milky white
What two elements can be found in urine sediment and should be evaluated at 10x power? Crystals and casts
What epithelial cells lines the distal urethra and external genitalia? Squamous
What epithelial cells line the cranial urethra, bladder, ureters, and distal renal pelvis? Transitional
What epithelial cells line the renal tubules? Renal epithelial cells
Name 4 elements that might be adhered to a cast that indicate renal pathology 1) RBCs 2) WBCs 3) Degenerated cells 4) Epithelial cells
Are uric acid, calcium oxalates, and calcium sulfates acidic or alkaline crystals? Acidic
Are triple phosphate, calcium carbonate, and ammonium biurate alkaline or acidic crystals? Alkaline
What might a fruity odor to urine indicate? Ketonuria
What are the normal USG values for dogs? 1.015-1.045
What are the normal USG values for cats? 1.020-1.040
What step of the UA should be performed before the urine is refrigerated? Specific gravity
What type of urine pH do herbivores have? Alkaline
What type of urine pH do carnivores have? Acidic
What will indicate tubule and/or reabsorption defects? Proteinuria
What are three causes of glucosuria? 1) Diabetes mellitus, 2) Stress, 3) Pancreatic disease
What can excess levels of ketones in the blood lead to? Coma, depressed CNS, acidosis
What is a by-product of hemoglobin metabolism? Bilirubin
How is bilirubin normally excreted? The GI tract
On a microscopic sediment exam what will indicate true hematuria? Red blood cells
What color supernatant will indicate a true hematuria? Clear
What are two inaccurate results on the urine dipstick? Leukocytes and specific gravity
What are the settings for centrifuging urine? 3000RPMs and 5 minutes
Will cells shrink or swell in concentrated urine? Shrink
Will cells shrink or swell in dilute urine? Swell
What does the prefix "py" indicate in pyuria? Excessive WBCs
What cast is most prevalent in dehydration and strenuous exercise? Hyaline
What can RBCs most often be mistaken for on microscopic exam? Air bubbles and fat droplets
What is the main functioning unit of the kidney? The nephron
What is a complete absence of urine output or elimination, associated with renal failure, urine obstruction? Anuria
Production of ammonia by bacteria is a consequence of delayed examination and storage of urine. What will this cause? Increase in pH and eventual formation of crystals
What will an increase of pH cause destruction of? Casts and blood cells
What will cloudy urine have presence of? Leukocytes, epithelial cells, crystals, bacteria, mucous, erythrocytes
What is urine described as if large particles are present that can be seen with the naked eye? Flocculent
Does a decreased or increased USG caused by increase in fluid intake, acute compromised renal function, and diuretic therapy? Decreased USG
Does a decreased or increased USG caused by dehydration, decreased water intake, and shock? Increased USG
What is Hyposthenuria? Deceased USG
What is hypersthenuria? Increased USG
What is it called when the USG is 1.010? Isosthenuria
What influences pH in urine? Dietary intake and by
Is normal urine acidic or basic and why? Acidic because normal metabolism produces an excess of acids
What pH is acidic urine? <7
What is the pH of alkaline urine? >7
True/False All glucose should normally be reabsorbed into the blood stream True
What is the main cause of glucosuria? Diabetes mellitus
What is the end product of fatty acid metabolism? Ketones
What can ketosis lead to? Acidosis, CNS depression and coma
What are bile pigments in the urine? bilirubin/urobilinogen
What is a by-product of hemoglobin metabolism? Bilirubin
What is caused by liver disease, hepatic outflow obstruction, and hemolytic anemia? Bilirubinuria
Created by: 48604741



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