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VT Pharm II

Dermatologic Pharm and Otic and Opthalmic Drugs

QuestionAnswer
Layer of skin which is nonvascular Epidermis
Layer of skin which is the location of glands, blood, lymph, and nerves Dermis
The hypo dermis which is loose fat and connective tissue Hypodermis (SubQ)
An infection below the epidermis that requires oral antibiotics Deep pyoderma
What must be performed before prescribing an antibiotic for deep pyoderma? Culture & Sensitivity
What type of antibiotic does not penetrate below the dermis? Topical antibiotics
Bacitracin, what is it? Topical antibiotic, gram +
What is neomycin? Topical antibiotic, gm -
What is polymixin? Topical antibiotic, gm -
What is gentamycin? Topical antibiotic, gm-
What's a complication of gentamycin? Nephrotoxicity
What is mupirocin? Topical antibiotic, gm+
What infection is mupirocin good for? Staff infections
Is dermatomycoses treated topically or orally? Both
What is clatrimazole? Antifungal
What is miconazole? Antifungal
What is nystatin? Antifungal
What is lime sulfur? Antifungal
What antifungals are often used in combo with antibiotics? Panalog, Gentocin topical, Tesaderm
What numbs tissue and helps prevent self-mutilation? Topical anesthetics
Do topical anesthetics work through unbroken skin and why? No, skin must be broken or inflamed
What is lidocaine? Topical anesthetic
What is tetracaine? Topical anesthetic
What is benzocaine? Topical anesthetic
What is pramoxine? Topical anesthetic
What anesthetics are used in combination with antibiotics, antifungals, and oatmeals? Derma Cool w/ Lidocaine, Forte topical, Epi-soothe
What medication releves itching, coats the skin, is mildly anti-inflammatory, and comes as shampoos, rinses, ointments, and conditioners? Colloidal oatmeal
What type of medication may be applied topically to soothe and treat allergic dermatitis? Antihistamines
What kind of drug is diphenhydramine? Antihistmaine
What type of medication decreases inflammation, decreases pruritis, and decreases edema and is often in combination when used topically? Glucocorticoids
What is a side effect of glucocorticoids? Slows wound healing
How may integrity of skin affect absorption with glucocorticoids? absorption increase if skin is broken
How may moisture of skin affect absorption with glucocorticoids? increases rate of absorption
How may thickness of skin affect absorption with glucocorticoids? Decreases systemic absorption
Which glucocorticoid has the shortest duration(less than 12hrs)? Hydrocortisone
Which glucocorticoid has an intermediate duration?(12-36hrs)? Triamcinolone, predinsone, methylprod
Which glucocorticoid has the longest duration?(over 48hrs) Betamethasone, flumethasone, dexamethasone
Which glucocorticoid is the least potent? Hydrocortisone
Which glucocorticoid is the most potent? Fluorine cortisones
What disease is the flaking and scaling of keratin? Seborrhea
Which form of seborrhea is dry? Seborrhea sicca
Which form of seborrhea is oily? Seborrhea oleos
Which form of seborrhea has a pronounced odor, is greasy feeling, and often has bacterial dermatitis as well? Seborrhea oleos
What decreases scaling and flakes, and breaks down protein structures of keratin? keratolytics
What type of medication are keratolytics? Antiseborrheics
Do keratolytics cure seborrhea? No they only control it
What type of seborrhea are keratolytics used for? Sicca & oleos
What type of keratolytics are used more for sicca, is nonstaining, and is also an antibiotic and antifungal? Sulfar products
What type of keratolytics lowers skin pH, hydrates skin, and is used for sicca? Salicylic acid
What type of keratolytics is used for oleos, is antipyretic, disrupts the bacterial cell membranes, and can bleach fabrics? Benzoyl peroxide
What type of keratolytics is used for oleos, is antifungal, interferes with hydrogen bond in keratin, and may irritate the skin? Selenium sulfide
What type of keratolytics is used for oleosa(degreasing), may stain fur, and is irritating to cats? Coal tar derivatives
What type of keratolytics is used to help moisture skin and maintain integrity, is anti-inflammatory and antipruritic, and is a form of lipid in the skin? Phytosphingosine
What type of topical drug dry the skin, precipitates proteins, and is used for moist dermatitis? Examples are boric acid and tannic acid Astringents
What type of topical drug is antibacterial, antifungal? Examples are alcohol, chlorhexidine, and iodine Antiseptics
What type of topical drug is mildly antibacterial and drying? Examples are epsom salt and aluminum acetate Soaks
What type of topical drug breaks down tissues, chemically cauterizes, stings, and destroys blood supply? Example is silver nitrate Caustics
What type of medication is used to increase or decrease immune response to improve patient's healing rate? Immunomodulators
What drug stimulates monocytes and is antineoplastic? imiquimod
What type of drug is imiquimod? immunomodulator
What drug suppresses T-lymphns and is used for atopy, perianal fistulas, and pemphigus? Pimecrolimus
What type of drug is pimecrolimus? Immunomodulator
What drug inhibits T lymphs, used for atopy, and is considered an antineoplastic for lymphoma? Cyclosporine
What type of drug is cyclosporine? Immunomodulator
What topical medication increases inflammation, increases blood supply to the area, is used to turn chronic inflammation into acute, and is used mostly in horses. Examples are witch hazel, menthol, and camphor. Counterirritants
What type of topical medication regulates cell proliferation and differentiation, stimulates the immune system, and is related to Vitamin A? Examples are Retin-A and Acutane Retinoids
What part of the eye is lipophilic? Corneal epithelium
What part of the eye is hydrophilic? Stroma
What type of diagnostic ophthalmic drug numbs the corena, lasts 1-10 minutes, and is used for pain relief? Topical anesthetics
What kind of drug is proparacaine? Topical anesthetic
What kind of drug is tetracaine? Topical anesthetic
What kind of ophthalmic drug is water soluble and breaks in lipophilic corneal epithelium exposing the hydrophilic stroma? Fluorescein stain
What part of the eye takes up the stain with a fluorescein stain? Stroma
Constriction of the pupil Miosis
What type of ophthalmic drug decreases the angle of the iris against the cornea and improves the outflow of the aqueous humor? Miotic
What are some side effects of miotics? Local irritation and redness
What kind of drug is pilocarpine? Miotics
Dilation of the pupil Mydriasis
What type of ophthalmic drug is used to facilitate retinal exam, helps break cornea adhesions, and relieves iris or ciliary spasms? Mydriatics
What mydriatic drug is used for ciliary spasms, is anti-cholinergic, cyclopegia, and lasts 1-3 hours? Atropine
What are some contraindications of atropine? Glaucoma and KCS
What are some side effects of atropine? Bitter taste and salivation
What mydriatic drug is used for retinal exams, has a faster onset and shorter duration than atropine, and is "weaker" than atropine? Homatropine
What mydriatic drug is sympathomimetic, has no cyclopegia, causes vasoconstriction, and is used to diagnosis Horner's and treat uveitis? Phenylophrine
What are some side effects of phenylephrine Discomfort and tearing
What mydriatic has a faster onset and shorter duration than atropine, is good for ophthalmic exams? Tropicamide
What are some contraindications for tropicamide? Glaucoma and KCS
What are some side effects of tropicamide? Dry mouth and decrease in tear production
What type of mydriatic reduces IOP, aids in the diagnosis of Horner's, decreases hemorrhage, and is used to prevent glaucoma? Epinephrine
What should epinephrine NOT be used for? Closed angle glaucoma
What type of glaucoma has a normal angle of iris to cornea but the outflow is impeded by the degenerative changes in trabecular network? Open angle glaucoma
What type of glaucoma has the iris occluding the outflow which causes an increase in IOP, iris swelling, and iris/corneal adhesions? Narrow angle glaucoma
What are different causes of increased IOP? Obstruction of outflow of aqueous humor or overproduction of aqueous humor
What causes the enlargement of the eye, pain, and corneal edema? Increased IOP
What type of drug decreases aqueous humor production, is topical or oral, and is used for the treatment of glaucoma? Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
What is an example of a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor? Acetazolamide
What are some side effects of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors? Anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, urinary crystals, local irritation of topicals
What type of topical drug is used to treat glaucoma and increases outflow? An example is latanaprost Prostaglandins
What are some side effects of prostaglandins? Abortion, miosis, vomiting and diarrhea
What type of drug is used to treat glaucoma, is sympatholytic, and decreases production of aqueous humor? Beta-adrenergic blockers
What is an example of a beta-adrenergic blocker? Timolol
What are some side effects of beta-adrenergic blockers? Decrease heart rate, hypotension, and blurred vision
What type of drug is used to treat glaucoma, increases urine output, and causes a rapid decrease in IOP? Osmotic diuretics
What is an example of an osmotic diuretic? Mannitol
What are some side effects of an osmotic diuretic? Electrolyte imbalance, dehydration, hypovolemia, and vomiting
What type of topical drug is used to treat glaucoma, is sympathomimetic and decreases production of the aqueous humor? Alpha adrenergic agonists
What is an example of an alpha adrenergic agonist? Brimonidine
What are some side effects of alpha adrenergic agonists? Vomiting and diarrhea
What are we aiming to do with the treatment of KCS? increase or replace tears
What must be addressed when treating KCS? 2ndary infections
What type of medication is used in the treatment of secondary bacterial infections, decreases inflammation, and is a lubrication? Antibiotic with gluccocorticoids
When should antiobitics with gluccocorticoids not be used? In the presence of corneal ulcers
What type of drug is used to treat KCS, is over the counter, replaces natural tears, lubricates eyes, washes away mucus, and rehydrates the cornea? Artifical tears
The ___ the preparation the longer it lasts Thicker
What tyep of drug is used to treat KCS, used for immune mediated diseases, suppresses the T luymphs relieving inflammation, may increase tear production, and takes several weeks to go into effect? Immunomodulator
What are some examples of an immunomodulator used to treat KCS? Cyclosporine and tacrolimus
What kind of drug is used to treat KCS, is parasympathomimetic, stimulates the lacrimal glands, and aren't used much? Lacrimogenics
What are some side effects of lacrimogenics? Vomiting, diarrhea, and bitter taste
What kind of infections occur in the eye? Viral, fungal, bacterial
What is essential to do before treating otitis? Evaluate the tympanum
What is the safest thing to use for cleaning the ears? Saline
What type of ear cleanser breaks up wax? Cerumenolytics
What type of ear cleanser is used for mois otitis? Drying agents
What type of ear cleanser dissolves dirt/wax and is a pH adjuster? Enzymes
What type of ear medication is often used in combination with other agents and should have a culture and sensitivity performed before dispensing? Antibiotic
What are some examples of otic antibiotics? Gentomycin, neomycin, enrofloxacin
What otic antibiotic should be reserved for resistant infections? Enrofloxacin
How are otic fungal infections usually treated? Topically, occasionally orally
What is the most common fungal otitis? Malassezia sp.
What are some examples of otic antifungals? Thiabendazole, clotrimiazole, nystatin, miconazole
What is the #1 ear parasite? Otodectes
What drugs are commonly used as otic antiparasitics? Topical ivermectin, selamectin, milbemycin
Created by: 48604741