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Pharm I Review

Veterinary medication

QuestionAnswer
Which is an example of a modern drug which originated from a plant or herb? Listerine? sulfadiazine? aspirin? naproxen? Aspirin
Principles of medicine and pharmacology are documented in ancient Egypt. True/False? true
Who accidentally discovered Penicillium mold's effect on bacteria? Fleming
What substances do antibacterials kill? Bacteria
What are antibiotics derived from? Derived from living organisms
Which is an example of a biologic? Penicillin? Listerine? Frontline? Distemper vaccine? Distemper vaccine
When was the FDA established? 1906? 1938? 1936? 1972? 1906
What act gave authority to the FDA? Food Drug and Cosmetic Act
A drug which is being used for a different purpose or in a species it was not originally intended for is referred to as being: Extralabel
The FDA allows veterinarians to use ALL human pharmaceuticals in food producing animals. True/False? False
What are controlled substances? Drugs considered dangerous because of their potential for abuse
Drug A is a CII drug and drug B is a CIII, which drug has greater potential for abuse? Drug A
Which of the following are included in regulations for dealing with controlled substances? Be kept in a locked safe or cabinet? Require a written prescription? Logs of purchase, dispensing, waste and remaining volume/amount be accurately kept All
Which of the following medications are controlled substances? Propofol? Amoxicillin? Prednisone? Valium/diazepam? Phenobarbital? Valium/diazepam and phenobarbital
What are short term toxicity studies monitoring for? Severe adverse reactions which occur in the hours immediately following dosing
What are preclinical studies being performed on a potential drug evaluating? Safety and efficacy
What are clinical trials determining? Safety and efficacy in the target species
What is carcinogenicity evaluating in a drug? If the drug causes cancer
What do reproductive studies in a drug determine? If product affects conception, fertilization
LD50 is the dose of pharmaceutical which... kills half of the animal receiving the drug
Drug A has an LD50 of 25 mg/kg. Drug B has an LD 50 of 60 mg/kg. Which drug is considered safer? Drug B
Drug A has an ED50 of 5 mg/kg. Drug B has an ED50 of 45 mg/kg. which drug requires less medication to be effective? Drug A
What does the therapeutic index determine? The amount of drug which is effective with minimal toxicity
How is the therapeutic index calculated? By dividing LD50 by ED50
What is the Therapeutic Index also called? Margin of safety
How does a pharmaceutical company protect its investment? By applying for a patent
Drug A has an LD50 of 25 mg/kg and an ED of 5 mg/kg. Drug B has an LD50 of 60 mg/kg and an ED50 of 45 mg/kg. Which drug is safer? Drug A
What does a pharmaceutical company who wants to market a generic drug have to apply for? Abbreviated New Drug Application
Are generic drugs patented? No
The active ingredient/drug of a generic drug must.... Be identical to the proprietary drug
Asks for approval of a drug which has completed testing NADA
Allows research on new pesticides EUP
Allows use of drugs in non-target species ELDU
Asks for approval after successful preclinical trial completion INAD
Clarified the extralabel use of drugs AMDUCA
How a drug biochemically works in the body Pharmacodynamics
Ability to produce birth defects Teratogenicity
Use of drugs for treatment Pharmacotherapy
Movement of drugs into and out of the body Pharmacokinetics
The alteration of a drug into its active form (metabolism) Biotransformation
Who regulates tetanus toxoid? USDA
Who regulates penicillin? FDA
Who regulates the bordatella vaccine? USDA
Who regulates Heartgard? FDA
Who regulates Frontline? EPA
What is the Black Plague also called? Bubonic plague
Who is the father of medicine? Hippocrates
What did Van Leewenhoek invent? A better lens for the microscope
When did the first veterinary college open in the US? 1852
How many veterinary colleges are in the US and Canada? 33
What is the term for how much drug is given per body weight unit? Dosage
Which of these is a reason a drug can't be given (contraindicated) orally? It is destroyed by stomach acid before absorption? The drug is lipophilic? You want it to work within 6-12 hours? It should be given with food? It is destroyed by stomach acid before absorption
Which of these is a contraindication to IM administration of a drug? The owner has trouble giving pills? It is slower than the oral route? The volume of drug is too small? The volume of drug is too large? The volume of drug is too large
What is initially giving a larger amount to bring blood levels up quickly called? Loading dose
A 10lb dog is prescribed a drug to be given 3 mg/kg TID. How many times a day is the dog to receive each dose? Three
A 10 lb cat is to be given a medication at 225mg divided TID. How much dose the cat take at each dose? 75mg
If a 60lb dog is taking 100mg TID what is the total daily dose? 300mg
Drug A has a bioavailability of 0.7 Drug B has a bioavailability of 0.4. All other factors being equal, which drug will reach higher blood levels? Drug A
When may toxicity occur in an otherwise safe drug? The patient is taking other medication which compete for metabolism
What blocks the receptor site of the toxin? A competitive antidote
What is the term for the amount of time it takes for a drug level to decrease by half? The half life of a drug
Which of the following is true for the blood brain barrier? Protects the brain and CNS against the effects of many drugs? Lacks fenestrations between vascular endothelial cells? Is affected by fever and inflammation? All
Medications can cross the placenta and affect the fetus. True/False True
What is the primary site of drug metabolism? Liver
What is the primary site of drug excretion? Kidney
Withdrawal time is the amount of time.... after the last dose of medication during which the animal or products cannot be sent to market
What animals are we concerned with for withdrawal times? Milk and meat products
List the routes of administration in order of fastest to slowest absorption. IV, IM, SQ, Oral
This mechanism can move molecules against the concentration gradient. Active transport mechanisms
Does passive or facilitated diffusion move chemicals from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration? Both
What is cell drinking called? Pinocytosis
In metabolism phagocytosis is a mechanism to.... transport large molecules into a cell
What is the chemical alteration of drugs by the cells called? Biotransformation
What does metabolism of a drug in the liver involve? Cytochrome P450
What is increased levels of metabolic enzymes after repeated exposure to a drug? Induction
Where do diffusion and secretion take place during drug excretion in the kidney? The convoluted tubules
Where does resorption of drugs in the kidney take place? Loop of Henle
If the blood flow to a tissue is increased drug levels in that tissue will... Increase
If blood flow to the kidneys is increased drug excretion will ___ and blood levels will ____ drug excretion will increase and blood levels will decrease
Drug A is excreted in the bile. If liver function is impaired the blood levels of Drug A will? Why? blood levels of Drug A will increase because excretion decrease
Hypotension will cause excretion of drugs to increase or decrease by the kidney? Decrease
This binds to a receptor and causes an action An agonist
This permanently alters the receptor of the agonist A noncompetitive antagonist
This is the strength of binding between a drug and its receptor Affinity
The altered ion state which prohibits drug movement Ion trapping
Takes/administers directly into the tissue/blood Parenteral
Fine particles in a liquid which settle out Suspension
Inhale a fine mist Nebulize
Reduced effect of a drug after repeated use Tolerance
Non ionized Lipophilic
Movement of drug from the site of administration to the target tissue Absorption
Passive movement of drugs which requires a carrier molecule Facilitated diffusion
Degree to which a drug is absorbed and reaches the blood Bioavailability
What type of drug is most easily absorbed into a cell? Lipophilic
What needs to happen to a drug to have it move out of a cell into the bloodstream? Ionize
An acidic drug is given orally. Where is it most likely to be absorbed? The stomach
A 48.4 lb dog is to be given a tablet at 15mg/kg, The bioavailability is 0.7 What is the effective dose the dog is receiving? 231mg
Two drugs have a calculated dose of 100mg. Drug A has a bioavailability of 0.6. Drug B has a bioavailability of 0.9. Drug A has a therapeutic range of 55-75mg. Drug B has a therapeutic range of 75-85mg. Which drug is safer to use? Drug A
Increases gastrointestinal motility Prokinetic
Describes GI movement to mix ingesta Segmentation
Decreases salivation Antisialogue
Induces vomiting Emetic
Encourages emptying of the bowel Laxative
Are antisialogues anticholinergic? Yes
How do protectants treat diarrhea? By coating GI mucosa and preventing further inflammation
What kind of drug absorbs bacteria, toxins and water to help treat diarrhea Adsorbents
How do opiates function when treating diarrhea? Increasing segmental contractions and decrease secretions
What is the theory behind using probiotics to treat diarrhea? Probiotics restore bacterial GI balance
Metronidazole is an antibacterial that is used to treat what? Diarrhea
What is the strongest of the GI "cleansing" agents? Purgative
What kind of GI drug draws fluid out of the tissue into the GI? Osmotic laxative
When should osmotic laxatives not be used? In a dehydrated animal
What kind of laxative works by increasing fecal volume and water content? Bulk forming laxatives
What type of GI drug lubricates feces to pass more easily? Emollients
Where is the vomiting center located? In the medulla
What kind of emetics irritate GI nerve endings to stimulate vomiting? Peripheral acting emetics
Which of the following is true of vomiting? The same as regurgitation? Stimulated by vestibular disease? Is only caused by stimulation of the CRTZ? Stimulated by serotonin release by the pituitary gland? Stimulated by vestibular diseases
Which of these are side effects of antiemetics? Hyperactivity? Sleepiness and dry mouth? Diarrhea and flatulence? Excessive salivation? Sleepiness and dry mouth
How does procainamide derivatives decrease vomiting? By blocking dopamine receptors in the CRTZ
What antiemetic works by blocking input to the CRTZ? Antihistamines
When are emetics contraindicated? When animal has swallowed a sharp foreign body? When animal has ingested caustic toxins? When animal has ingested the owner's medication? When animal has swallowed a sharp foreign body or ingested a caustic toxin
What may gastric ulceration in animals be caused by? Kidney disease and metabolic acidosis
What GI drug reduces gastric acid by blocking histamine receptors in the stomach? H2 blockers
What GI drug blocks absorption of some medications? Mucosal protective drugs
What can prostaglandin analogs cause? Vomiting, diarrhea, and abortion
What GI drug increases intestinal motility? Prokinetic agents
Which is true of parasympathomimetic prokinetic agents? Indicated to control vomiting? Used to treat diarrhea? Should be used in treatment of intestinal obstruction? Contraindicated in the treatment of sharp foreign bodies? Contraindicated in the treatment of sharp foreign bodies
What may prokinetic agents be used to treat? Rumen atony or GI ileus
What GI drug may be used to treat esophageal reflux disease? Proton pump inhibitors
What is included in the category of appetite stimulants used in veterinary medicine? Benzodiazepines? Opiates? H2 Antagonists? Serotonin Receptor Antagonists? Benzodiazepines
What is the drug dirlotapide used as? An appetite suppressant
What GI drug is an absorbent and detoxifier? Glycopyrrolate? Aminoentamide? Activated Charcoal? Diphenoxylate? Acidophilus? Activated charcoal
Which is a probiotic? Glycopyrrolate? Aminoentamide? Activated Charcoal? Diphenoxylate? Acidophilus? Acidophilus
Which drug is an opiate antidiarrheal? Glycopyrrolate? Aminoentamide? Activated Charcoal? Diphenoxylate? Acidophilus? Diphenoxylate
Which drug is an antiemetic and antidiarrheal? Glycopyrrolate? Aminoentamide? Activated Charcoal? Diphenoxylate? Acidophilus? Aminopentamide
Which drug is an antisialogue? Glycopyrrolate? Aminoentamide? Activated Charcoal? Diphenoxylate? Acidophilus? Glycopyrrolate
Which drug is a bulk laxative? Lactulose? Psyllium? Docusate sodium(DSS)? Acepromazine? Metoclopramide? Psyllium
Which drug is a phenothiazine antiemetic? Lactulose? Psyllium? Docusate sodium(DSS)? Acepromazine? Metoclopramide? Acepromazine
Which drug is a procainamide derivative? Lactulose? Psyllium? Docusate sodium(DSS)? Acepromazine? Metoclopramide? Metoclopramide
Which drug is an osmotic laxative? Lactulose? Psyllium? Docusate sodium(DSS)? Acepromazine? Metoclopramide? Lactulose
Which drug is an emollient laxative? Lactulose? Psyllium? Docusate sodium(DSS)? Acepromazine? Metoclopramide? Docusate Sodium
Which drug is a serotonin receptor antagonist? Bismuth subsalicylate? Metronidazole? Ondansetron? Syrup of ipecac? Ondansetron
Which drug is a peripheral acting emetic? Bismuth subsalicylate? Metronidazole? Ondansetron? Syrup of ipecac? Syrup of ipecac
Which drug is a protectant antidiarrheal? Bismuth subsalicylate? Metronidazole? Ondansetron? Syrup of ipecac? Bismuth subsalicylate
Which drug is an antibacterial antidiarrheal? Metronidazole
Which drug is a mucosal protectant? Cimetidine? Sucralfate? Misoprostol? Omeprazole? Maropitant? Sucralfate
Which drug is a prostaglandin derivative? Cimetidine? Sucralfate? Misoprostol? Omeprazole? Maropitant? Misoprostol
Which drug is a neurokinin receptor antagonist? Cimetidine? Sucralfate? Misoprostol? Omeprazole? Maropitant? Maropitant
Which drug is a H2 blocker? Cimetidine? Sucralfate? Misoprostol? Omeprazole? Maropitant? Cimetidine
Which drug is a proton pump inhibitor? Cimetidine? Sucralfate? Misoprostol? Omeprazole? Maropitant? Omeprazole
Which drug has side effects of mucosal oxidative damage? Phosphate enemas? Prostaglandin analogs? Hydrogen peroxide? Xylazine? Hydorgen peroxide
Which drug should not be used for constipated cats? Phosphate enemas? Prostaglandin analogs? Hydrogen peroxide? Xylazine? Phosphate enemas
Which drug can cause bradycardia? Phosphate enemas? Prostaglandin analogs? Hydrogen peroxide? Xylazine? Xylazine
Which drug should not be used in pregnant animals? Phosphate enemas? Prostaglandin analogs? Hydrogen peroxide? Xylazine? Prostaglandin analogs
Which drug can cause irreversible diabetes in cats? Atropine? Metoclopramide? Progestins? Dirlotapide? Progestins
Which drug can cause hepatic lipidosis in cats? Atropine? Metoclopramide? Progestins? Dirlotapide? Dirlotapide
Which drug can cause hypotension and ventricular fibrillation? Atropine? Metoclopramide? Progestins? Dirlotapide? Metoclopramide
Which drug can cause dry mouth and tachycardia? Atropine? Metoclopramide? Progestins? Dirlotapide? Atropine
Which drug blocks acetylcholine at parasympathetic nerves? Phenothiazines? Procainamide derivatives? H2 blockers? Proton pump inhibitors? Antisialogues? Procainamide derivatives
Which drug blocks histamine receptors of stomach cells? Phenothiazines? Procainamide derivatives? H2 blockers? Proton pump inhibitors? Antisialogues? H2 blockers
WHich drug irreversibly bind to enzymes of stomach cells? Phenothiazines? Procainamide derivatives? H2 blockers? Proton pump inhibitors? Antisialogues? Proton pump inhibitors
Which drug is a dopamine antagonist? Phenothiazines? Procainamide derivatives? H2 blockers? Proton pump inhibitors? Antisialogues? Antisialogues
Which drug inhibits dopamine in CRTZ Phenothiazines? Procainamide derivatives? H2 blockers? Proton pump inhibitors? Antisialogues? Phenothiazines
What is an antibiotic that kills bacteria called? Bactericidal
What is an antibiotic that inhibits the growth or replica of bacteria called? Bacteriostatic
What is the term that means an antibacterial kills both gram positive and gram negative bacteria? Broad spectrum
What is the purpose of performing a culture and sensitivity? To determine the effectiveness of different antibiotics against a bacterial agent.
Where were penicillins originally derived from? Mold on a culture dish
What kind of penicillins are penicillins which are combined with another drug to enhance efficacy? Potentiated penicillins
Are newer or older "generations" of cephalosporins beta-lactamase resistant? Newer
Which of these do tetracyclines treat? Borellia burdorferii (Lyme)? Leptospira sp. ? Babesia sp. ? All of them
Do imidazole antifungals have a higher or lower toxicity than polyene antifungals? Lower
What is dermatomycoses commonly called? Ringworm
Which are common productes used in the home and veterinary hospital which are disinfectants? Bleach? Hydrogen peroxide? Alcohol? All of them
Which disinfectants kill everything including spores? Aldehydes
Bleach and betadine are both.... Halogens
What can biguanides be used as? Both antiseptics and disinfectants
What category of antimicrobial drug is sulfadiazine? Sulfonamide
What category of antimicrobial drug is amoxicillin/clavulanic acid? Potentiated penicillin
What category of antimicrobial drug is doxycycline? Tetracycline
What category of antimicrobial drug is gentamycin? Aminoglycoside
What category of antimicrobial drug is amoxicillin? Broad spectrum penicillin
What category of antimicrobial drug is enrofloxacin? Quinolone
What category of antimicrobial drug is ketoconazole? Imidazole antifungal
What category of antimicrobial drug is metronidazole? Nitroimidazole
What category of antimicrobial drug is methicillin? Beta-lactamase resistant penicillin
What category of antimicrobial drug is nystatin? Topical polyene antifungal
Which of these drugs causes tooth enamel discoloration? Chloramphenicol? Amphotericin B? Tetracycline? Sulfonamide? Quinolone? Tetracycline
Which of these drugs causes thrombocytopenia? Chloramphenicol? Amphotericin B? Tetracycline? Sulfonamide? Quinolone? Sulfonamide
Which of these drugs interferes with cartilage in growing animals? Chloramphenicol? Amphotericin B? Tetracycline? Sulfonamide? Quinolone? Quinolones
Which of these drugs causes nephrotoxicity? Chloramphenicol? Amphotericin B? Tetracycline? Sulfonamide? Quinolone? Amphotericin B
Which of these drugs causes bone marrow suppression? Chloramphenicol? Amphotericin B? Tetracycline? Sulfonamide? Quinolone? Chloraphenicol
What are parasites that live inside the body called? Endoparasites
Which of these is an example of an ectoparasite? Tick? Roundworm? Tock? Ringworm? Tick
What is a nematode a general class of? Roundworm
What is the correct term for a group of flatworms? Platyhelminths
What is the common name of anthelminthics? Dewormers
What do anticestodals treat? Tapeworms
What is the group of parasites that fluke/flatworms belong to? Trematode
What is the intermediate host of most fluke/flatworms? A snail
What is the most common source of coccidial and Giardia exposure? Fecal contamination/ingestion
Which is Heartworm preventative effective against? Microfiliaria? Third stage larvae? Adult parasites? Tissue cysts? Third stage larvae
Adulticide treatment for heartworm disease does not kill microfilaria. True/false? True
How do insect growth regulators work? By interrupting the molting process
Which of these antiparasitics should not be used on cats? DEET? Essential oils? Amitraz? All of them
What parasite is praziquantel commonly used for? Cestodes
What parasite is metronidazole commonly used for? Giardia
What parasite is pyrantel pamoate commonly used for? Nematodes
What parasite is clorsulon commonly used for? Trematodes
What parasite is sulfadimethoxine commonly used for? Coccidia
What flea product is a systemic flea treatment? Selamectin (Revolution)
What flea product kills fleas in thirty minutes? Nitenpyram (Capstar)
What flea product prevents the flea from molting? Methoprene
What flea product is a topical nonsytemic and kills fleas and ticks? Fipronil (Frontline)
What flea product prevents the hard shell from developing? Lufenuron (Program)
What flea product is a topical nonsystemic and kills only fleas? Imidacloprid (Advantage)
What stage of heartworm disease does a high dose of ivermectin kill? Microfilaria
Is a low dose of ivermectin an oral or topical preventative? Oral
What stage of heartworm disease does melarsomine kill? Adult
Is selamectin an oral or a topical preventative? Topical
Is a low dose of milbemycin a topical or an oral preventative? Oral
What parasitic drug group does fenbendazole belong in? Benzimidazole
What parasitic drug group does fipronil belong in? Phenylpyrazole
What parasitic drug group does pyrantel belong in? Tetrahydropyrimidine
What parasitic drug group does ivermectin belong in? Avermectin
What parasitic drug group does metronidazole belong in? Nitroimidazole
What drug classification is cephalosporins? Cell wall agent
What drug classification is polymixin? Cell membrane agent
What drug classification is macrolides? Protein synthesis agent
What drug classification is sulfonamides? Antimetabolite
What drug classification is quinolones? Nucleic acid agent
Which drug is a cholinergic agonist? Fenbendazole? Pyrantel? Ivermectin? Lufenuron? Fipronil? Pyrantel
Which drug overstimulates nervous system? Fenbendazole? Pyrantel? Ivermectin? Lufenuron? Fipronil? Fipronil
Which drug blocks invertebrate choloride channels? Fenbendazole? Pyrantel? Ivermectin? Lufenuron? Fipronil? Ivermectin
Which drug interferes with energy metabolism? Fenbendazole? Pyrantel? Ivermectin? Lufenuron? Fipronil? Fenbendazole
Which drug is a chitin synthesis inhibitor? Fenbendazole? Pyrantel? Ivermectin? Lufenuron? Fipronil? Lufenuron
Created by: 48604741