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NHA Phlebotomy study

What are the two types of circulation in the heart? 1.Pulmonary Circulation 2.Systemic Circulation
Pulmonary Circulation does? Carries Deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lings
Systemic Circulation does? Carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle throughout the body.
What are the two right valves of the heart? Tricuspid Valve: atrioventricular valve Pulmonic Valve: Semi Lunar valve
What are the two left valves of the heart? Mitral Valve: atrioventricular valve Aortic valve: A semi Lunar Valve
What are the hearts three layers? Endocardium,Mycocardium,Epicardium
What are the 8 blood vessels? Aorta, Ateries, Aterioles, capillaries,venules,veins,superior and inferior vena cavae
How many liters of blood are in the average adult body? 5-6 liters
Plasma Liquid portion
Formed elements cellular portion consists of Erythrocytes,Leukocytes,Thrombocytes
What is the life span for Erythrocytes? 120 days
What are the five Leukocytes? Neutrophils,Lymphocytes,Monocytes,Eosinophils, Basophils.
Hemostasis the process by which the blood vessels are repaired after injury.
what are the four stages of Hemostasis? 1.Vascular Phase,2.Platelet Phase,3.Coagulation Phase,4.Fibrinolysis
Vascular Phase Injury to blood vessels causing it to constrict slowing blood flow.
Platelet Phase Platelets adhere to injured endothelial linning. Forms aggregation.
Aggregation temporary platelet plug
Coagulation Phase Converts temporary platelet plug to a stable fibrin clot.
Fibrinolysis Breakdown and removal of clot.
APTT (Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time) Used to monitor Heparin Therapy, and used to monitor intrinsic pathway
PT (prothrombin time) Used to monitor Coumadin Therapy,this also evaluates extrinsic pathway.
What are the three major veins located in the antecubital fossa of the upper extremities? Median Cubital Vein, Cephalic Vein, Basilic vein
Median Cubital Vein Vein of choice, large and tends not to move.
Cephalic Vein Second choice, has tendency to move, often only vein that can be palpated in the obese patient.
Unsuitable veins for venipuncturen are? Sclerosed veins (hard cord like) Thrombotic Veins Tortuous Veins (winding or crooked veins, susceptible to infection)
Do not draw blood from an arm with IV fluids running into it.
Hematoma Blood accumulates in the tissue surrounding the vein. Causes= needle went through vein, or failure to apply pressure
Hemoconcentration Increase of proportion due to tourniquet left to long
Phlebitis Inflammation of a vein due to repeated venipuncture
petechiae tiny non-raised red spots due to tourniquet being left to long.
Thrombus Blood clot, usually consequence of insufficient pressure after withdrawl of needle
Thrombophlebitis Inflammation of a vein with formation of a clot
Septicemia systemic infection associated with the presence of a pathogenic organism introduced during venipuncture
Trauma injury to underlying tissues caused by probing of needle
Edema fluid retention in tissue
How far should you puncture when doing a capillary no deeper than 2.0mm
where do you puncture on the heel medial and lateral of the plantar surface of heel
what is the order of draw yellow lightblue,red,green,lavender, gray
chemistry section is divided into three parts Electrophoresis:analyzes chemical componets of blood. Toxicology: analyzes plasma levels of drugs and posions Immunochemistry:detects and measures substances such as hormones,enzymes, and drugs
profile a group of tests ordered by physician
blood bank section blood is collected stored and prepared for blood transfusion.
Serology (immunology) section evaluates patients immune response through the production of antibodies.
Microbiology section detection of pathogenic microorganisms in patient samples
urinalysis section detects infection of the kidney and urinary tract
Hematology section formed elements of the blood are studied whole blood is the most common test
external hemorrage elevate the affected part above heart level and applying direct pressure to the wound
shock insufficent return of blood flow to the heart
agents infectious microotganisms that can be classified, viruses,bacteria,fungi, and parasites
portal of exit how infectious agent leaves it's reservior
mode of transmission specific ways whih microorganisms travel
5 main modes of transmission contact:direct and indirect Droplet,Airborne,Common vehicle,vectorborne
portal of entry allows infectious agent access to the susceptible host
susceptible host agent enterts a person who is not resistant or immune
medical asepsis destruction of pathogenic micrpoorganisms after they leave the body
what is the solution fraction for disinfection 1:10 bleach to water
negligence failure to excersize the standard if care that a resonable person would give
what are the 4 D's of negligence Duty of care Derelict:breach of duty of care Direct cause:legally recognizable injury occurs as a result of breach of duty Damage:wrongful activity must have cause the injury
tort wrongful act that results in injury to a person
battery: patient must give full consent before you touch them
invasion of privacy release of medical records without the patients permission
defamation of character injury to another persons reputation or name
Fasting Specimens collection of blood when patient is in basil state refrained from excersize for 12 hrs prior drawing
timed specimen measure blood levels of substances determine blood level medications monitor changes in a patients condition
Two hour postprandial test evaluate diabetes mellitus
Oral Flucose Tolerance Test OGTT diagnose diabetes mellitus and low blood sugar scheduled to begin 0700 and 0900
3 hour OGTT test hyperglycemia
5 hour OGTT evaluate hypoglycemia
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring monitors blood levels of certain medication
Blood Cultures detect presence of microorganisms in patients blood
PKU Ordered on infants to detect phenylketonuria causes mental retardation and brain damage
Cold Agglutinins blood collected in red tube pre warmed in the incubator at 37 degrees celsius for 30 min
Chilled specimens specimens must be chilled pronto in crushed ice or ice water mixture example arterial blood gases,lactic acid
Light sensitive specimens protected from light wrapped in aluminum foil
Created by: jeshy007
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