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NHA STUDY GUIDE

TermDefinition
THE PROPER WAY TO DISPOSE OF A NEEDLE IS put it into the sharps container w/o recapping it, immediately after withdrawing it
THE "GOOD SAMARITAN LAW" ENCOURAGES HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS TO: provide medical care within the scope of their training at the scene of an accident without fear of being sued for negligence
IF A PATIENT REFUSES A VENIPUNCTURE PROCEDURE, THE PHLEBOTOMIST SHOULD immediately report the refusal and actions taken to the nurse or doctor
MICROORGANISMS THAT CAUSE DISEASE pathogenic
THIS VEIN IN THE ARM IS MOST SUBJECTED TO VENIPUNCTURE median cubital vein
POST PRANDIAL after a meal
TOURNIQUETS MAY BE LEFT ON THE PATIENT FOR 1 min
THIS COMPLICATION RESULTS FROM REPEATED VEINPUNCTURE OF THE SAME phlebitis
THE COMPONENTS THAT MAKE UP THE CHAIN OF INFECTION ARE source, susceptible host, mode of transmissions
A HEMATOMA CAN BE PREVENTED IF pressure is place on the venipuncture site until the bleeding stops
ARTERIAL BLOOD GASES NEED WHAT KIND OF SPECIAL HANDLING specimen must be chilled after collection
THE RECOMMENDED DEPTH FOR AN INFANT MICROCAPILLARY COLLECTION SHOULD NOT EXCEED 2.0 mm
COMMON SYMPTOMS OF SHOCK ARE pale, cold, clammy skin, rapid weak pulse, expressionless face/staring eyes
BACTERIA, VIRUSES, FUNGUS OR PARASITES BELONG TO WHICH TYPE OF HAZARD biologic
EXAMPLES OF PPE gloves, mask, face shield gown
ISOLATION IS CONDENSED INTO WHICH THREE CATEGORIES airborne, droplet, contact
WHAT IS CONSIDERED A PREANALYTICAL ERROR allergic reaction
DELIVERS OXYGEN, NUTRIENTS, HORMONES, AND ENZYMES TO THE CELLS AND TO TRANSPORT CELLUAR WAST SUCH AS CARBON DIOXIDE & UREA TO THE ORGANS WHERE THEY CAN EXPELLED FROM THE BODY circulatory circulation
THIS CARRIES DEOXYGENATED BLOOD FROM THE RIGHT VENTRICLE TO THE LUNGS & RETURNS OXYGENATED BLOOD FROM THE LUNGS TO THE pulmonary cirulation
THIS CARRIES OXYGENATED BLOOD FROM THE LEFT VENTRICLE THROUGHOUT THE BODY systamic circulation
THIS IS AN ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVE, BEING SITUATED BETWEEN THE RIGHT ATRIUM & RIGHT VENTRICLE the tricuspid valve
A semi lunar valve situated between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery pulmonic valve
the mitral valve is also known as the bicuspid valve
THE INNER LAYER LINING OF THE HEART IS endocardium
THE MUSCULAR MIDDLE LAYER OF THE HEART (THIS IS THE CONTRACTILE ELEMENT OF THE HEART IS myocardium
THE FIBROUS OUTER LAYER OF THE HEART (THE CORONARY ARTERIES, WHICH SUPPLY BLOOD TO THE HEART ARE FOUND IN THIS LAYER) epicardium
AORTA, ARTERIES, ARTERIOLES, CAPILLARIES, VENULES, VEINS, SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR VENA CAVAE blood vessels
THE BLOOD VESSELS (EXCEPT FOR THE CAPILLARIES) ARE COMPOSED OF THESE 3 LAYERS tunica adventitia, tunica media, tunica intima
CARRIES OXYGENATED BLOOD FROM THE HEART TO THE VARIOUS PARTS OF THE BODY systematic circulation
THE OUTER CONNECTIVE TISSUE LAYER OF THE BLOOD VESSEL tunica adventitia
THE MIDDLE SMOOTH MUSCLE LAYER OF THE BLOOD VESSEL tunica media
THE INNER LAYER OF THE BLOOD VESSEL IS tunica intima
CARRIES OXYGENATED BLOOD FROM THE HEART TO THE VARIOUS PARTS OF THE BODY the aorta, arteries & arterioles
THE VENULES, VEINS AND THE SUPERIOR/INFERIOR VENA CAVAE carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart
THE CAPILLARIES ARE COMPOSED OF endothlial cells
CAPILLARY BLOOD IS A MIXTURE arterial & venous blood
THE AVERAGE ADULT HAS ____________ LITERS OF BLOOD 5-6
THE LIQUID PORTION OF BLOOD IS CALLED plasma
THE CELLULAR PORTION OF BLOOD IS CALLED formed elements
CONTAINS PROTEINS , AMINO ACIDS, GASES, ELECTROLYTES, SUGARS, HORMONES, MINERALS, VITAMINS AND WATER (92%) plasma
THE THIN WALLS OF THE CAPILLARIES ALLOW RAPID EXCHANGE OF oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and waste products between the blood & tissue cells
PLASMA COMPROMISES WHAT PERCENTAGE OF THE CIRCULATING BLOOD 55%
THE FORMED ELEMENTS OF BLOOD COMPRIMISE WHAT PERCENTAGE OF THE CIRCULATING BLOOD 45%
THE FORMED ELEMENTS OF BLOOD CONTAIN erthyocytes (99%), leukolytes, and thromocytes
THE ERUTHROCYTES CONTAIN AN OXYGEN CARRYING PROTEIN CALLED hemoglobin
AN IMMATURE ERYTHOCYTE IS CALLED A reticulocyte
RETICULOCYTES MATURE INTO ERYTHOCYTES IN HOW LONG 1-2 days
HOW MANY RBC'S ARE CONTAINED PER MICROLITER OF BLOOD 4.2-6.2 million
THE NORMAL LIFE SPAN OF RBC IS 120 days
WHICH TYPE OF CELL PROVIDES THE BODY PROTECTION AGAINST INFECTION? wbc
THE NORMAL AMOUNT OF WBC'S FOR AN ADULT 5,000-10,000
AN INCREASE OF WBC AS SEEN IN CASES OF INFECTION & LEUKEMIA IS CALLED leukolytes
A DECREASE IN WBC'S AS SEEN WITH VIRAL INFECTION OR CHEMOTHERAPY leukopenia
HOW MANY TYPES OF WBC'S ARE IN THE BLOOD 5 types
WHAT WBc IS THE MOST NUMEROUS & COMPROMISES 40%-60% OF WBC POPOULATION? neutrophils
WHAT WBC IS PHAOCYTIC & INCREASES IN BACTERIAL INFECTION AND IS OFTEN THE FIRST ON THE SCENE neutrophils
WHAT WBC INCREASES IN NUMBERS IN VIRAL INFECTIONS & PLAY A ROLE IN IMMUNITY neutrophils
WHAT WBC IS THE 2ND MOST NUMEROUS, COMPROMISING 20%-40% OF THE WBC POPULATION lymphocytes
WHAT WBC INCREASES IN NUMBERS IN VIRAL INFECTION & PLAY A ROLE IN IMMUNITY lymphocytes
WHAT WBC IS THE LARGEST (3%-8% OF WBC POPULATION) monocytes
WHAT WBC REPRESENTS 1%-3% AND NUMBERS INCREASE WITH ALLERGIES, SKIN INFECTIONS AND PARASITIC INFECTIONS eosinophils
WHICH WBC REPRESENT 0%-1% & #'s of the population & carry histamine basophils
ALL BLOOD CELLS NORMALLY ORIGINATE FROM STEM CELLS IN THE bone marrow
THESE ARE SMALL IRREGULARLY SHAPED PACKETS OF CYTOPLASM FORMED IN THE BONE MARROW FROM MEGAKARYOCYTES & ARE ESSENTAIL FOR BLOOD COAGULATION thrombocytes (platelets)
THE AVERAGE NUMBER OF PLATELETS PER MICROLITER OF BLOOD 140,000-440,000
PLATELETS HAVE A LIFE SPAN OF HOW MANY DAYS 9-12
THIS IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH BLOOD VESSELS ARE REPAIRED AFTER INJURY hemostatis
FOUR STAGES OF HEMOSTATIS vascular, platelet, coagulation, fibrinolysis
DURING THE PLATLET PHASE OF HEMOSTASIS PLATELETS STICK TO THE SITE FINALLY OFRMING A TEMPORARY PLATELET PLUG IN A PROCESS CALLED: aggreation
The preferred site for venipuncture of the upper extremities is the anticubital fossa
The three major veins located in the anticubital fossa are median cubital, cephalic basilic vein
Veins that are hard or cordlike, caused by disease, inflammation, chemotherapy, or repeated venipuncture sclerosed veins
winding crooked veins are called tortuous veins
Do not draw blood from what kind of site IV fluids
Do not draw blood from what kind of site artificial a-v fistula site
The most common complication of phlebotomy procedure, indicating that blood has accumulated in the tissue surrounding the vein is hematoma
This increase in proportion of formed elements to plasma caused by the tourniquet being left on more than two minutes hemoconcentration
This common complication of phlebotomy procedure is caused by the needle going through the vein and/or failure to apply enough pressure on the site after withdrawl hematoma
Inflammation of a vein as a result of repeated venipuncture on the vein phlebitis
Tiny non raised red spots that appear on the skin from rupturing of the capillaries due to the tourniquet being left on or too tight petechiae
A blood clot due to insufficient pressure applied after the withdrawl of a needle thrombus
Inflammation of a vein with formation of a clot thrombophlebitis
Systemic infection associated with the pressure of a pathogenic organish introduced during a venipuncuture septicemia
This is an injury to underlying tissues caused by probing of the needle trauma
Patient must abstain from eating for at least twelve hours fasting
Accumulation of fluid in the tissues. collection from this tissue alters test result edema
Permanant surgical connection berween an artery and a vein and can never be used to venipuncture fistula
-cyte cell
erythro- red
-globin protein
Heme- blood
Leuko- white
-olgy study of
-lysis destroy or breakdown
Hist- tissue
Phleb- vein
Thrombo- clot
-otomy incision/cut
-oma tumor
Mega Large
karyo nucleus
anti against
poly more than one
phago eat
pulmon lung
-emia blood circulation
-itis inflammation
penia deficiency
-statis stopping or control
angio vessel
bili bile
necro death
derm skin
a-/an- without
ambi both
cryo cold
brady slow
endo inside
cyan blue
epi on or over
iso same
neo new
peri around or during
arteriio artery
cephal head
cubit elbow
Condition in which normal red blood cells are reduced anemia
serving to prevent the coagulation anticoagulant
largest artery in the body aorta
a minute arterial branch which leads to a capillary arterioles
A vessel through which blood passes away from the heart to the tissue. The pulmonary is an exception the rule artery
large vein on the inner side of the upper arm basilic vein
artery which lies beneath the bailic vein in the antecubital fossa branchial artery
smallest blood vessel that connects arteries capillary
device which spins test tubes @ high speeds causing the heavy particles in the liquid to settle to the bottom and the lighter liquid to the top centrifuge
large vein on the outermost side of the arm cephalic arm
The treatment of disease by chemical agents chemotherapy
protein subastance produced by elements of blood and tissue which form a network as the base of a clot fibrinogen
bubbles caused by improper venipuncture frothing
volume percentage of erythocytes in whole blood hematocrit
destruction of red blood cells with the liberation of hemoglobin which diffuses into the surrounding fluid caused by frothing, not allowing the alcohol to dry on skin, shaking the tube and improper entry into the lumen of the vein hemolysis
inflammation of the liver by virus or toxic origin hepatitis
abnormally increased amounts of sugar in the blood system hyperglycemia
abnormally low blood sugar hypoglycemia
a disease characterized by excessive production of wbc leukemia
abnormally high amounts of fat in the blood lipemia
the major vein of the aantecubital fossa most commonly used for venipuncture median cubital vein
veins found in the feet metatarsal veins
first six weeks of birth neonatal
to examine by touch palpate
the scientific study of the nature of disease pathology
blood obtained from the outer surface of the body peripheral blood
pretaining to a meal prandial
artery found in the wrist radial artery
clear watery fluid which separates from the blood when centrifuged serum
fainting syncope
formation of a clot within a blood vessel thrombosis
an injury or wrongful act to one person for which another person who caused the injury is legally responsible under a civil suit tort
blood vessels carrying deoxgenated blood to the heart, except for the pulmonary which carries oxygenated blood vein
blood obtained from a vein venous blood
the amount of blood returning to the artia of the heart venous return
a small cavity such as one of th lower chambers of the heart venticle
blood containg all components, also referred to as macro method technique whole blood
skin white blood cells, antibodies, interferon, lining in the body, body secretions natural body defenses
widespread occurance of an infectious disease among a population epidemic
an organism that lives within or upon another organism (worms) parasite
the organism with or upon which a parasite lives host
a disease producing agent. There are 6:virus, bacteria, rickettsias, protozoa, parasitic, worms, fungi pathogen
the organism responsible for carrying a communicable disease from one host body to another vectors
exists in vast numbers and lives everywhere (water, garbage, air, water, mouth) bacteria
smallest parasitic organism, hardest to isolate viruses
transmitted to man by ticks, lice rickettsias
single celled parasite found in moist oil and bodies of water such as malaria protozoa
survives in moist warm and dark environments such as ringworm and athletes foot fungi
A preparation of weakened or dead bacteria of inoculation purpose vaccine
Anticoagulant found in the yellow test tube sps (sodium polyanetholesuflonate)
anticoagulant found in the light blue tube sodium citrate
anticoagulant found in the green test tube sodium/lithium/ammonia heparin
anticoagulant found in the lavender test tube edta
What does the red/grey speckled test tube contain clot activators
which test tube is sterile yellow top
which section in the clinical lab, are the formed elements of the blood studied hematology section
which section of the clinical lab is the most automated section in the laboratory chemistry section
what are the three areas that the chemistry areas that the chemistry section divided in electrophoresis, toxicology, immunochemistry
what does the toxicology area of the chemistry section do analyzes plasma levels of drugs and poisons
What does the immunochemisty are of the chemistry section do uses techniques such as radio ummunoassay & enzymes immunoassay to detect and measure substances such as hormones enzymes and drugs
What section of the lab collect, stores, and prepares blood for transfusions blood bank
What section of the performs test to evaluate the patients immune response through the production of anitbodies serology (immunology) section
what section of the lab is responsible for the detection of pathogenic microorganisms in patient samples and for the hospital infection control? microbiology section
what is the primary test performed in the microbiology section of the lab culture and sensitivity (C&S)-used to detect and identify microorganisms and to determine the most effective antibiotic therapy
what section of the lab performs tests on the urine to detect disorders and infection of the kidney and urinary tract and to detect metabolic disorders such as diabetes melitus urinalysis section
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSHA is responsible for the identification of the various hazards present in the workplace and for the creation of rules and regulations to minimize exposure to such hazards
what emergency first and procedures should be used for external hemorrhage Control the bleeding by elevation the affected part above the heart level and apply direct pressure to the wound. Never elevate a broken extremity
what is the first aid for shock Maintain open airway for victim, call for help , keep victim laying down with the head lower than the rest of the body, keep victim warm, attempt to control any known bleeding or cause of shock
CPR stands for cardiopulmonary resucitation
what are the 5 main types of mode of transmission contact (direct/indirect), droplet, airborne, vehicle, vectorborne
what are some common entry sites for infection broken skin, mucous membranes and body systems exposed to the external environment such as the respiratory, gastrointestal and reproductive systems
the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms after they leave the body medical asepsis
what is the most important means of preventing the spread of infection handwashing
ppe personal protective equipment
what ppe's are used in barrier protection gloves, masks goggles, face shields, respirator
what are the two tiers or levels of precautions regarding isolation procedure standard precautions and transmission base precautions
the sharps injury log must contain at a minimum the type and brand of device involved in the incident, the department or work area where the exposure incident occurred, an explanation of how the incident occured
what is informed consent is a consent given by the patient who is made aware of any procedure to be performed to be performed its risks expected outcomes and alternatives
what is negligence this is the failure to exercise the standard of care that a reasonable person who give under similar circumstances and someone suffers injury because of another's failure to live up to a required duty of care
what is the normal range for blood pressure 90/60 140/90
the top # of a blood pressure reading is when the heart is contracting called the systolic
the bottom # of a blood pressure reading is when the heart is resting/relaxed called the diastolic
Normal respiration rate 12-14 BPM (breathes)
normal pulse/heartrate 60-100 BPM (beats)
Tachycardia pulse/heart rates above 100 BPM
bradycardia pulse/heart rates below 60 BPM
Normal body temp 97.6F - 99.6F
conversion formula from fahrenheit to celsius subtract 32 multiply .555
conversion formula from celsius to fahrenheit multiply by 1.8 + 32
Proper order of draw blood cultures (black yellow, light blue, red, malbled red (orange for stat, green, lavender, grey, royal blue
anticoagulant in the grey test powdered potassium oxalate and sodium fluoride
anticoagulant in the orange STAT thrombin clot activator
light blue test pt-coumadin, ppt-heparin, coagulation, protein, S&C, lupus anticoagulant
red test tube blood grouping, RH factor, amebiasis, blastomycosis
red marbled/speckled test tube serum-serology....pregnancy test
green test tube ammonia, kidney test, immune diseases, T&B cell count, histamine
lavender/pink test tube CBC, morphology of RBC, reticulyte count, sickle cell, T&B cell count, blood film, and differential
grey test tube GTT, FBS, alcohol, cyanide lactic acid, vitamin c
Royal blue test tube trace metals-arsenic, lead, maganese, mercury, zinc, copper, chromium
In the electrical circulation of blood, he sino atrial node fires for FIRES-1MV 5 sec
In the electrical circulation blood, the atrial ventricle node hold for HOLDS 1/10 sec
In the electrical circulation of blood the AV bundle (bundle of his) does what SEPARATES-separate at the bundle of his allowing blood to move from the L & R atria to the L & R ventricle
In the electrical circulation of blood, the purkinje fibers do what PUSHES OUT-network of fibers that work with the myracardial cells in the ventricles to help push the blood out of the heart
Created by: 100000296951062