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A+P Bones

Anatomy and Physiology

bone second hardest natural substance in the body, composed of cells embeded in a matrix
what is bone composed of? cells embedded in a matrix
what is the matrix? collagen fibers embedded in a protein and polysaccharides
who are the cells? osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts
cancellous bone spongy, tiny spicules of bone that appear random
compact bone heavy dense, shafts of long bones and outside layer of all bones
haversian systems concentric-layers of ossified bone matrix arranged around a central haversian canal
haversian canal cotains? blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves
*what does calcitonin help prevent? hypercalcemia
*what does parathyriod hormone prevent? hypocalcemia
*calcitonin lowers blood calcium deposits calcium into bones
*parathyriod hormone highers blood calcium pulls calcium out of bones
why is is so important that blood calcium remain within normal limits? for muscle contraction, blood cloting, milk secretion, skeleton formation, and maintenance to work
periosteum membrane that covers outer surfaces of bones
endosteum lines hollow interior surfaces of bone
endochondral bone formation creates a cartilage that's replaced by bone
intramembranous bone formation bone forms in fibrous tissue membranes that cover brain in developing fetus, creates flat bones
types of bone cells? what are their roles? osteoblasts form bone and secrete matrix, osteocytes once surrounded by bone, osteoclasts eat away bone
functions of bone support-body, protection-vital organs and tissues, leverage-levers for skeletal muscle to move body, storage, blood cell formation
which bone formation is employed by the most bones in the body? endochondral bone formation
what are the bone shape categories? long-limbs, short-carpal, flat-scapulae, irregular-vertebrae
yellow bone marrow primarily fat tissue in adults, can revert to red if needed
red bone marrow hematopoietic tissue in young animals
foramen hole
fossa depressed area
what makes up the axial skeleton? head and trunk
what makes up the appendicular skeleton? limbs
skull bones most complex
frontal bones form forehead
temporal bones form lateral walls- mandible
ethmoid bone contains cribriform plate
occipital bone forms base
sphenpoid bone forms ventral (bottom)
what is the TMJ temporal mandibular joints
what are bones of the inner ear? ossicles-> malleus-hammer, incus-anvil, stapes- stirrup
external acoustic meatus bony canal that leads into the middle and inner ear cavities
nasal turbinates (nasal conchae) scroll-like bones that fill most of the space in the nasal cavity, forces air inhaled through nose
hyoid apparatus (hyoid bone) helps animal to swallow
sternebrae series of rod-like bones
manubrium most cranial
xiphoid most caudal
olecranon process is site of attachment for? tendon of brachii muscle attaches
what do scapula and humerus make up? shoulder
what do ulna and radius make up? elbow
canon bone and splint bones are derived from? metacarpals
long and short pasterns derived from? phalanges
coffin bone distal phalanx
navicular bone distal sesamoid
which joint of the forelimb is the "knee"? carpus/carpal
metalcarpals are fused: which? III and IV
digits toes
how many digits do horses have one
how many digits do cattle have four
what are sesamoid bones? irregular bones in tendons
what is the largest sesamoid bone in skeleton of domestic animals? patella
pelvic symphysis cartilaginous joint
patella located in quadriceps femoris muscle
tibia, fibula, and femur make up? knee
shaft of femur and tibia form? stifle joint
visceral skeleton? bones that form in organs. ie os cordis- bone in heart of cattle and sheep
tendons muscle to bone
ligaments bone to bone
movements possible for synovial joints? freely movable
hinge flexion and extension ie elbow joint
gliding(rocking) flexion, extension, some abduction and adduction ie carpus
pivot rotation ie atlantoaxial joint
ball and socket flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, and circumduction ie shoulder and hip joints
atlantoaxial joint the "no" joint
atlantooccipital joint the "yes" joint
blood supply to bone? vessels pass Volkmann's canals joins with blood vessels in haversian systems enter through nutrient foramina carry blood into and out of bone marrow
Created by: Marilyn:)